Getting to Know SOA

The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction Stuart Card Thomas Moran Allen Newell Senior Research Fellow at Xerox PARC Engineer at IBM Almaden Research Center and manager at Xerox PARC Researcher at RAND and at Carnegie Mellon

Bachelors in Physics Ph.D. in Psychology Psychology Artificial Intelligence Computer Science Founding Editor of Human-Computer Interaction journal Q: Q: What Whatdo doHCI HCI and and AI AI

have haveto to do dowith with eachother? eachother? Computer Science Cognitive Psychology Turing Award in 1975 for his work in AI and the psychology of human cognition Passed away in 1992 Human Processor Model The Human Processor Model draws an analogy

between the processing and storage areas of a computer, with the perceptual, motor, cognitive and memory areas of the computer user. Q: Q: IsIs this this all allthere there isisto to how how we wethink thinkand andinteract interact with with

the the world? world? GOMS Goals Operators Methods Selection rules GOMS Goals What a user has to accomplish. Operators Action performed in service of a goal. Methods

Sequences of operators and subgoals that accomplish a goal. Selection rules Choices between multiple methods that accomplish the same goal. GOMS Variants Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) CMN-GOMS NGOMSL CPM-GOMS Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) KLM is the simplest GOMS technique, and

uses methods in sequence form composed of keystroke-level operators. Useful for most common single-user tasks, but impractical for representing high-level tasks. CogTool CogTool is an open-source tool for KLM analysis developed at Carnegie Mellon. http://cogtool.hcii.cs.cmu.edu/ CogTool Comparing two designs CMN-GOMS CMN-GOMS is the first GOMS model by Card, Moran, and Newell, and uses a goal hierarchy

of methods in program form. Predicts operator sequence and execution time, and focuses attention on the methods used to accomplish goals. Natural GOMS Language (NGOMSL) NGOMSL attempts to provide a natural, welldefined, high-level syntax for GOMS, and represents methods in terms of the cognitive complexity theory (CCT) . Predicts learning time as well as execution time, and can represent the users memory usage. Q: Q: Do Dothese these theoretical theoreticalmental

mentalmodels modelsreally really contribute contributeto topractical practical design design issues, issues, or or are are they they aa distraction? distraction? Where Where isis the the real realscience science

in inHCI? HCI? Can Can since since and and design design coexists? coexists? ~ nada The current GOMS models are quite effective because they capture procedural speed and complexity. But other aspects of human performance with an interface are not addressed by the simple cognitive architectures underlying the current GOMS variants. BONNIE E. JOHN AND DAVID E. KIERAS. 1996. THE GOMS FAMILY OF USER INTERFACE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES: COMPARISON AND CONTRAST. ACM TRANS. COMPUT.-HUM. INTERACT. 3, 4 (DECEMBER 1996), 320-351.

Keystroke-Level Model for Advanced Mobile Phone Interaction Paul Holleis Research Group Embedded Interaction University of Munich Friederike Otto Heinrich Humann Media Informatics Group University of Munich Albrecht Schmidt Fraunhofer IAIS, Sankt Augustin B-IT, University of Bonn

Introduction Goal: Extend KLM by identifying basic interaction elements for mobile phones and give performance estimates derived from user tests. KLM is a precise predictor of expert user performance when comparing designs. Q: Q: Why Why do dowe we care care so somuch much about about the

the expert expert user? user? Should Should we? we? Operators Original Operators: New Operators: Keystroke (K) Pointing (P) Drawing (D(nD,lD)) Homing (H) Mental Act (M) Response Time (R(t))

Macro Attention Shift (SMacro) Micro Attention Shift (SMicro) Distraction (X) Action (A(t)) Gesture (G) Finger Movement (F) Initial Act (I) User Study

7 studies 9-19 participants per study 50% students 41% women Evaluation Conducted two scenarios for validation: KLM predicted 122 and 174 seconds. Actual result of 117 and 170 seconds. Q: Q: Can Can GOMS GOMS models, models,like like KLM, KLM,be be applied

appliedto toany any interface? interface? Q: Q: Do Do you youthink thinkthe the models models that that exist exist today today can can still still be

be used used for for interactions interactions on on the thefuture future mobile mobile devices? devices? ~ Aditi Kulkarni Conclusion We presented models of two different implementations of a real world scenario that also indicate that well grounded design decisions can be reached purely based on the model predictions.

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