Geography GCSE Revision

Geography GCSE Revision Edexcel Specification A CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Getting Organised! E.G. Mon Tues Wed Thu 16/0 4 23/0 4 30/0 4 07/0 5

14/0 5 CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Fri Sat Sun The Economic World Economic Systems Sectors of Industry Farming Characteristics of Farming Employment structure as an How farming is changing indicator of differences between countries How patterns change over time EU - CAP Case Studies Rice farming in the Philippines

EU changes in UK CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Secondary Industries Factors affecting location of secondary activities ICT in Bracknell Informal/ Formal industry Bracknell Fiat in Brazil Economic World PRIMARY ACTIVITY Factors Affecting Farming Social & Economic Factors Labour Capital (money Technology Markets Government Economic Activities: 1. Commercial and Subsistence Farming Systems 2. How Farming is Changing

Farming as a System Inputs Sunlight Rainfall / water supply Land / soil Labour (workforce) Capital (money) Seeds / fertiliser / pesticides animals Processes Cultivation of crops e.g. ploughing, irrigation Rearing of animals Outputs Crops Animals

Animal products e.g. milk / meat Outputs: a) To sell b) Farmers own use Feedback Do you know your case studies? Intensive Wet Rice Farming Philippines EU Changes in the UK (CAP) Environmental Factors Climate Relief Soil Types of Agriculture 1. Enterprise: Arable Pastoral Mixed

2. Intensity of Production: Intensive Extensive 3. Subsistence/Commercial CAP Make sure you know what is this and what changes it brought: Diversification Set-aside Quotas CDunne/TYork (c)2008 List example s of other primary activities. Classification of Farming 1. 2. 3. 1. 2.

1. 2. Specialisation Arable Pastoral Mixed Economic Status: Commercial farming Subsistence farming Intensity of Land Use: Extensive Intensive CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Types of Farming Global General Knowledge Type of Farming Example Nomadic Hunting Aborigines, Australia

Nomadic herding Maasai in Kenya Shifting cultivation Amerindians in Amazonia Intensive subsistence agriculture Rice farming in the Ganges Delta Plantation agriculture Sugar cane in Brazil Livestock ranching (commercial pastoral) Beef on the Pampas Cereal cultivation Canadian Prairies Mixed farming

Netherlands Mediterranean agriculture Southern Italy Irrigation Nile Valley, California Unsuitable Sahara Desert CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Factors Affecting Farming Relief Soils Physical Factors Temperature Rainfall

CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Factors Affecting Farming Government aid Fertiliser Marketing Human Factors Competitio n for land Size of farm Mechanisation CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Common Agricultural Policy 1. 2. 3. Created in 1962 Aims:

To protect farmers incomes To ensure reasonable and steady prices for consumers To increase production to provide sufficient food supplies CDunne/TYork (c)2008 CAP achieved by 1. 2. Grants and subsidies money for farmers who farm in difficult areas Price support a guaranteed minimum price for agricultural produce (may cause surpluses Very expensive sustainable? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Case Study: How is Farming Changing? 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. Home Farm, West Midlands Set aside: EU funded scheme to reduce surpluses Farmers are paid not to grow anything for 5 years (left fallow) Payment = up to 300 per year! Diversification to Caravans and B&B Renting land out for Grazing CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Case Study: How is Farming Changing? 1. 2. a) b)

Diversification: This is when farmers develop business initiatives other than farming Examples: Barns converted in to holiday cottages, garden centres and farm shops Tea shops CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Case Study: How is Farming Changing? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Agribusinesses: Large-scale, highly efficient farms Organised on scientific and business principles Includes a chain of suppliers and retailers Belongs to a group of other farms

Able to reduce cost of inputs economies of scale CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Quick Quiz 1. Make a list of all the factors that affect farming you mind find it easier to split them into physical and human factors. 2. What are: a) Arable farms b) Pastoral farms c) Mixed farms? 3. Explain what is meant by the following: a) Intensive farms b) Extensive farms c) Subsistence farms d) Commercial farms 4. What does CAP stand for? 5. What is diversification? CDunne/TYork (c)2008

The Economic World SECONDARY ACTIVITIES What other types of economic activity are there? Economic Activities: 1. The location of manufacturing industries 2. The location of distribution industries Industry as a System Inputs Raw materials Land Labour Power Transport Capital (money) Outputs Finished product for the consumer or

to other industries Waste products Processes Making the goods Process Packaging Distribution Profit Reinvested Profit or Loss Employment Structure label and explain. The first chunk is primary, the second secondary and the last tertiary. Uganda C Dunne 2005 Location of Industry Where?

Why? Case Studies: Heavy industry e.g. iron & steel Industry Footloose Industry e.g. Hi-tech industry Distribution Industry e.g. Argos, Stafford Can you interpret a Triangular Graph? UK CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Location Factors Large, flat site Market Raw materials What is needed? Labour Energy

Transport (links) CDunne/TYork (c)2008 High-Tech Industries Bracknell Computer Development Why have they located here? (Where is it exactly?) The following may give you a few clues but make sure you have re-read the case study. These may be described as footloose because they are not really restricted by the location factors of raw materials e.g. pc factories Tend to opt for locations near major route ways e.g. M4 / M11 corridors

Also locate near university sites research facilities Would prefer sites that area aesthetically pleasing for their workers YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS CASE STUDY! CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Formal and Informal sectors What are the differences? What characterises an informal sector job? What is the advantage of a formal sector job? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Some industries are classed as Heavy Industry e.g. Iron and steel 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. South Wales e.g. Ebbw Vale, Merthyr Tydfil Natural Advantages: Coalfields Limestone Iron ore Flat site (of Valley) River (Rhonnda) cooling finished product Local settlements work force Port (gateway to the British Empire market) These areas are where industry used to be but then it moved for several reasons. CDunne/TYork (c)2008 How did location factors change?

Empire countries gained independence more competition; market not as strong Coal and iron ore reserves were becoming exhausted (running out!); seams were too thin to mine or inaccessible (making it more expensive to mine) Original valley site not big enough for modern factories Coastal areas were better as they were the areas where relatively cheap imported materials were coming in There were better places in the world to make things that were cheaper Place like Britain got rid of lots of their industries toCDunne/TYork countries (c)2008like Brazil. Brazil - Fiat

What is a Trans National Company (TNC) Why did Fiat move from Italy to Brazil? Why did Fiat expand in Brazil? CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Bonus Knowledge The Decline of Manufacturing De-industrialisation the growing importance of tertiary (Service and Tourism) and quaternary (High tech Research and Development e.g. NASA) industries Port Talbot steelworks is the only one remaining in Wales; Llanwern steelworks closed in 2001 (1300 jobs lost)

CDunne/TYork (c)2008 The Reason for the Decline 1. 2. 3. Globalisation: many companies compete on a global scale competition is strong constantly looking for cheaper raw materials and/or manufactured goods CDunne/TYork (c)2008 The Consequences

Coal mine / steel works close High unemployment People have less money to spend on goods and services Fewer taxes and business rates paid to the council Less investment by council for education, schools and other key services Young people leave school with fewer/poorer qualifications People have more time, less opportunities, less money Petty crime often increases Environmental decline CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Political Responses 1.

2. 3. Development areas government gives financial assistance (in what forms?) Encouragement of new industries in the area of decline: Retail parks using the old steelworks site (a bit like Bluewater old gravel pit) Tourism heritage site / museum Manufacturing (hi-tech) LG now located there (but this brings with it other problems. Can you think of any?) CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Distribution Industries E.g. Argos Warehouse, Staffordshire Central location

Can reach any of their stores by overnight delivery Located on the junction 34/A51 on the M6 Lots of space to house the huge warehouse CDunne/TYork (c)2008 Quick Quiz Name the 4 types of industry How does this classification help when talking about the employment structure and development of a country? Briefly define/explain the term system List the important factors when considering the location of industry What is heavy industry?

Which case study? Where? Why? What happened? What is a footloose industry? CDunne/TYork (c)2008

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