Galen's Theory of the Four Temperaments (130-200 A.D.)

Galens Theory of the Four Temperaments (130-200 A.D.) Blood Cheerful, sanguine, warm-hearted, volatile Black Bile Sad, Melancholic Yellow Bile Fiery, Quick-Tempered, Person of Action Phlegm Slow Moving, Cautious, Phlegmatic When are Traits Good Predictors of Behavior? When they are specific and limited When an individual is extreme on the trait

Traits predict general behavior over time better than single instances More specific situations help make traits better predictors The influence of any personality trait can be overpowered by strong situ The Metatrait Hypothesis Personalities of different individuals contain different clusters of traits, so that traits that are important for you (self-schematic traits) are more useful than trait that are not relevant to you (aschematic traits)

The Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness (Will to Achieve) Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) Openness to Experience The Measurement of Personality

OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF PERSONALITY Global Measures MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Specific Measures Locus of Control PROJECTIVE MEASURES OF PERSONALITY EXAMPLES: Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The Rorschach Test The Rorschach Test

The Rorschach Test The Rorschach Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis Freud: 1856-1939 Freuds View of Human Nature Motivation

due to the Pleasure Principle We are driven to action by instincts Eros: The Sex Instinct Libido Psychic energy associated with the sex instinct. Thanatos: The Death Instinct Psychic Determinism: Nothing happens by chance

The Unconscious: Part of the personality that is inaccessible to the person Freuds View of Human Nature Freuds Model of the Personality Id

Entirely unconscious Irrational, impulsive, selfish No conception of reality or morality Primary Process Thought Ego

Develops around 6-8 months Sane & rational; The Reality Principle Secondary Process Thought Anxiety is the Egos response to threats Superego

Morality; internalizes rules; sense of right and wrong Ego Ideal what person would like to be Punishes with guilt Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral Stage ( Lasts for first12-18 months) Anal Stage (1-1.5 years through age 3 or so) Phallic Stage (about 3 until about 6)

Oedipus Complex Latency Stage ( 6 until puberty) Genital Stage (puberty through adulthood) Anxiety & Defense Mechanisms

Repression- Ego keeps impulses from consciousness Denial- Refuse to perceive reality Displacement- Substitute acceptable for unacceptable

things Sublimation- Rechannel impulses to creative, socially acceptable behavior Projection- Attribute ones own undesirable characteristics to others Reaction Formation- Behave opposite to impulses Rationalization- Justify through excuses Intellectualization- Dissociate from feelings; focus on logic Undoing- Perform desirable act to make up for undesirable one Compromise Formation- Use contradictory behaviors

to gain satisfaction from undesirable impulse Psychoanalysis Goal: Seek insight into the unconscious, achieve catharsis & release from tension Tools of Psychoanalysis: Hypnosis Free Association

Analysis of Dreams Other Influential People in Psychoanalysis Carl Jung (1875-1961) Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Karen Horney (1885-1952) Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949) Otto Rank (1884-1945)

Carl Jung (1875-1961) Psychic energy still an outcome of conflict between opposing forces in personality, but it is not all about sex. There is a personal AND collective unconscious Instincts & Archetypes The Persona The Shadow

The Animus & Anima His Theory of Psychological Types is very influential in psychology today; the basis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Developed advanced techniques for the interpretation of dreams. Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

He called his system Individual Psychology An Individuals Goals direct his or her behavior Striving for perfection & completion Overcoming feelings of inferiority & striving for superiority Organ Inferiority Masculine Protest Inferiority Complex Social

Interest Style of Life Early Childhood Experiences are Critical for Development Parenting Style (pampering vs. neglect) determine style of life Birth Order is a critical variable Goals of Psychotherapy: To promote a socially interested style of life & overcome feelings of

inferiority Uses standard psychoanalytic techniques, especially dream interpretation Third Force Psychology A Reaction against determinism of Behaviorism & Psychoanalysis Human behavior is NOT determined Humans are free to choose their own existence

A Combination of Humanistic & Existential Psychology Focus is on helping healthy individuals achieve full potential Humanistic Psychology: People are innately good; We strive to actualize our inner potential Existential Psychology: We need to create meaning in our life and Take charge

Third Force Psychology Famous Third-Force Psychologists Martin Heidegger (Existential) Rollo May (Humanistic) Erich Fromm (Existential) Psychopathology results from cultural forces that prevent us from creating meaning

Abraham Maslow (Humanistic) Psychopathology results from failure to satisfy needs (especially self-actualization needs) Carl Rogers (Humanistic) Psychopathology results from a lack of positive self-regard created by conditions of worth

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • GOAL AREA ACTIONS - USF Marine Science

    GOAL AREA ACTIONS - USF Marine Science

    Goal II - Quality of Education Identify CMS actions to further progress on University quest for AAU membership. Assess teaching emphasis and attention to graduate education. Define criteria/resource requirements to attract permanent Dean. Implement specific opportunities for regular interface among...
  • Electronic Serials -

    Electronic Serials -

    En el segundo ejemplo Nigel Lambourne no se presenta como creador por lo que, incluso aunque no aparezca en la mención de responsabilidad, se encabeza por Renoir ya que es una compilación de sus obras. Este título colectivo facticio probablemente...
  • SAFETY TALK Bat Removal During warm summer months,

    SAFETY TALK Bat Removal During warm summer months,

    SAFETY TALK. Bat Removal. Assess the Situation: If the bat is located in an area that is not typically accessible to faculty, staff, and students, such as an attic, it should be left alone until it can be removed by...
  • Whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean and

    Whaling and sealing in the Southern Ocean and

    Whaling also taking place by mid 1800s in the AP. Whales had to be taken one by one, flensed next to ship or on land. Almost every ice-free beach in the AP has whale bones on it. Admiralty Bay, KGI,...
  • Ecological speciation model

    Ecological speciation model

    Chapter 14 Pages 383 - 402 Lactic Acid Bacteria Characteristics: Gram positive, carbohydrate users, proteolysis rare, nonmotile, non-spore forming Strict fermentors, unable to synthesize cytochromes unless heme is added. catalase negative oxidase negative Nutritionally fastidious All make lactic acid (lactate)...
  • Data Curation Education

    Data Curation Education

    Preparing e-Science Information Specialists: New Programs and Professionals Carole L. Palmer Center for Informatics Research in Science and Scholarship (CIRSS)
  • Physics and Chemistry Offerings in New York State:

    Physics and Chemistry Offerings in New York State:

    Boosting enrollment in physics and chemistry. Solutions - New York State. Explore units of analysis. Richer disaggregate data. Opportunity to learn in different contexts. Who is teaching what? In middle school? How many teachers do we need in what certification...
  • Geometry Optimizations - Hope College

    Geometry Optimizations - Hope College

    Frequency Calculations Lecture CompChem 3 Chemistry 347 Hope College Molecular Vibrations A molecule has 3N-6 vibrational degrees of freedom Vibrations arises from a parabolic potential energy surface Transition states have imaginary (negative) frequencies Vibrational Quantum States Vibrational states are quantized...