Galen's Theory of the Four Temperaments (130-200 A.D.)
Galens Theory of the Four Temperaments (130-200 A.D.) Blood Cheerful, sanguine, warm-hearted, volatile Black Bile Sad, Melancholic Yellow Bile Fiery, Quick-Tempered, Person of Action Phlegm Slow Moving, Cautious, Phlegmatic When are Traits Good Predictors of Behavior? When they are specific and limited When an individual is extreme on the trait
Traits predict general behavior over time better than single instances More specific situations help make traits better predictors The influence of any personality trait can be overpowered by strong situ The Metatrait Hypothesis Personalities of different individuals contain different clusters of traits, so that traits that are important for you (self-schematic traits) are more useful than trait that are not relevant to you (aschematic traits)
The Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness (Will to Achieve) Neuroticism (Emotional Stability) Openness to Experience The Measurement of Personality
OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF PERSONALITY Global Measures MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) Specific Measures Locus of Control PROJECTIVE MEASURES OF PERSONALITY EXAMPLES: Rorschach Test, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) The Rorschach Test The Rorschach Test
The Rorschach Test The Rorschach Test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Sigmund Freud & Psychoanalysis Freud: 1856-1939 Freuds View of Human Nature Motivation
due to the Pleasure Principle We are driven to action by instincts Eros: The Sex Instinct Libido Psychic energy associated with the sex instinct. Thanatos: The Death Instinct Psychic Determinism: Nothing happens by chance
The Unconscious: Part of the personality that is inaccessible to the person Freuds View of Human Nature Freuds Model of the Personality Id
Entirely unconscious Irrational, impulsive, selfish No conception of reality or morality Primary Process Thought Ego
Develops around 6-8 months Sane & rational; The Reality Principle Secondary Process Thought Anxiety is the Egos response to threats Superego
Morality; internalizes rules; sense of right and wrong Ego Ideal what person would like to be Punishes with guilt Psychosexual Stages of Development Oral Stage ( Lasts for first12-18 months) Anal Stage (1-1.5 years through age 3 or so) Phallic Stage (about 3 until about 6)
Oedipus Complex Latency Stage ( 6 until puberty) Genital Stage (puberty through adulthood) Anxiety & Defense Mechanisms
Repression- Ego keeps impulses from consciousness Denial- Refuse to perceive reality Displacement- Substitute acceptable for unacceptable
things Sublimation- Rechannel impulses to creative, socially acceptable behavior Projection- Attribute ones own undesirable characteristics to others Reaction Formation- Behave opposite to impulses Rationalization- Justify through excuses Intellectualization- Dissociate from feelings; focus on logic Undoing- Perform desirable act to make up for undesirable one Compromise Formation- Use contradictory behaviors
to gain satisfaction from undesirable impulse Psychoanalysis Goal: Seek insight into the unconscious, achieve catharsis & release from tension Tools of Psychoanalysis: Hypnosis Free Association
Analysis of Dreams Other Influential People in Psychoanalysis Carl Jung (1875-1961) Alfred Adler (1870-1937) Karen Horney (1885-1952) Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949) Otto Rank (1884-1945)
Carl Jung (1875-1961) Psychic energy still an outcome of conflict between opposing forces in personality, but it is not all about sex. There is a personal AND collective unconscious Instincts & Archetypes The Persona The Shadow
The Animus & Anima His Theory of Psychological Types is very influential in psychology today; the basis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Developed advanced techniques for the interpretation of dreams. Alfred Adler (1870-1937)
He called his system Individual Psychology An Individuals Goals direct his or her behavior Striving for perfection & completion Overcoming feelings of inferiority & striving for superiority Organ Inferiority Masculine Protest Inferiority Complex Social
Interest Style of Life Early Childhood Experiences are Critical for Development Parenting Style (pampering vs. neglect) determine style of life Birth Order is a critical variable Goals of Psychotherapy: To promote a socially interested style of life & overcome feelings of
inferiority Uses standard psychoanalytic techniques, especially dream interpretation Third Force Psychology A Reaction against determinism of Behaviorism & Psychoanalysis Human behavior is NOT determined Humans are free to choose their own existence
A Combination of Humanistic & Existential Psychology Focus is on helping healthy individuals achieve full potential Humanistic Psychology: People are innately good; We strive to actualize our inner potential Existential Psychology: We need to create meaning in our life and Take charge
Third Force Psychology Famous Third-Force Psychologists Martin Heidegger (Existential) Rollo May (Humanistic) Erich Fromm (Existential) Psychopathology results from cultural forces that prevent us from creating meaning
Abraham Maslow (Humanistic) Psychopathology results from failure to satisfy needs (especially self-actualization needs) Carl Rogers (Humanistic) Psychopathology results from a lack of positive self-regard created by conditions of worth
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