From grading to self-assessment: E/valuation in sport performance

Authentic assessment of game performance: Combined approaches leading to selfassessment Tim Hopper PE352 1 How do we get students actively involved in their learning? What does it look like? How does assessment affect student learning? What are alternative methods of assessment? 2 Context of example in presentation Aim of physical education is to encourage students to pursue an active lifestyle Specific examples drawn from University performance and analysis

classes in tennis (PE117 and PE461) 3 In both PE117 and PE461 the assessment procedures culminate in a university grade. Consider How can these examples be transferred into other contexts? 4 Overview of presentation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Four frames of assessment Game performance and the 4Rs Practical Examples

Student responses Why do we assess? 5 Assessment Other/Self-Other/Self 1. Grade based on teachers test and/or judgment (Other decides) 2. Grade based on student selfassessment and judged by teacher (Self has input into judgment by Other) 3. Learning based on student selfassessment and supported by the teacher (Self decides guided by Others) 4. Self-initiated learning by students (Self decides working with Others) 6 Theory of Games Teaching/Learning Game performance combines tactical awareness for appropriate motor skill selection and motor skill execution* 1. Movement (off-the-ball)

2. Skill selection 3. Skill execution *Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 7 Anatomy of a game performance* Recover Tactical Awareness Player decision making READ RESPOND On-the ball skill selection then skill execution Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution

REACT RECOVER *Hopper. (2003). Four R's for tactical awareness: Applying game performance assessment in net/wall games. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, March, (In Off-the ball movement skill selection then skill execution 8 Castle game: Practical for 4Rs See Articles section on Website http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/thopper/index.html 9 Other decides (teacher) Officiating rules exam* (graded) (Closed)

Stroke analysis assignment* (graded) (Structured teacher but Open-ended solution) Course log* (pass/fail) (Structured teacher but very open solutions) [*http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/thopper/Web/PE117/index.html] 10 Reflection Teacher knowledge valued Student focused on finding our what teacher values Course log started to shift the way content was organized - based on student program (teacher prep, kinesiology, leisure admin.) the detail and focus varied. 11 Self has input into judgment by Other (teacher then peers, graded) Rubric assessment criteria

Drives For more examples link to http://www.educ.uvic.ca/Faculty/thopper/Web/PE117/index.html Other as teacher then Other as peer 12 Drives Criteria Rating (1) Consistency (2) Consistency & positioning (3) Consistency & positioning

(4) Consistency, placement & positioning Area of play and Criteria Teaching Pointers Short court Demonstrate the forehand and backhand stroke with correct grip and played sideways on, from partner hand feed. Hit 5 consecutive shots from partner feed. Performed in half size tennis court. Shake hands grip Palm on top of the handle {Eastern or Western grip). Turn shoulders sideways to ball, turn hips. Hit ball at waist knee height. Take racquet back early at hip height.

Watch ball at all times. Return to base behind service-line. As above, except: Single-handed backhand Chopper grip Palm turned to back of handle. Hip turn less. Racket taken back lower. Strike ball in hitting zone in front of body Half court Be able to change grip from a feed. Show movement and positioning in a game. Able to keep ball going in 10 shot rally. Full length court Perform shots with movement around the full court. Play coach and partner in game. Perform rally, changing grips, hitting both forehands and backhands. Target 20 shots. Double-handed. Full length court Play with greater consistency. Handle high and low bouncing balls in the game.

Personally hit 8 consecutive shots from competitive feed in full court on both forehand and backhand sides. Full court Perform shots with movement around the full court. Play coach and partner in game. Perform co-op rally with partner changing grip hitting both forehand and backhands hitting to open half court area of the court. Target 16 shots. Double Handed Grip eastern forehand grip plus other hand. Hip turn as with forehand. Strike ball ahead of leading foot. Game Play castle game changing grip. Play in service boxes rallying for 4, 6 and 8 shots in push-off

game. Half length court with point starting after 6 backhands hit in a row. Full court with point starting after 4 backhands hit beyond the service-line. Use non-racquet hand to change grip. Always return racquet to ready position after shot. Select shot and prepare early when possible. Concentrate on the ball. Recover to base behind the base-line. Half length court. 8 shot rally with partner or coach then play out the point.

3-ball feed hitting to pressing zones. Footwork, small steps. Play shot balanced, comfortable distance from body. Use non-racquet hand to balance upper body. Keep head down during stroke. High follow-through. Recover to cover target area Play 5 game with point starting after a co-operative rally where a backhand and forehand drives are hit successfully in the game. Diagram Rating

(5) Consistency, placement, positioning & spin (6) Placement Positioning & spin (7) Placement Positioning spin & power (8) Placement Positioning spin & power

(9) Area of play and Criteria Teaching Pointers Full court Play with greater consistency. Handle high and low bouncing balls in the game. Covering a full court personally hit 10 consecutive shots from mixed feed to half court on both forehand and backhand sides using spin Anticipate flight of ball. Move accordingly. Early preparation with racquet taken back height going to hit ball. Bend knees. Full court 3 ball feed Control depth and placement of shot in drills and game situations. Show ability to

use spin to put pressure on an opponent in game. Hit (50%+) to the pressing zones beyond the service lines. Able to direct the ball across court or down the line. Adjust height of ball clearance over net. Control pace of shot. Angle racquet face. Adjust timing of shot. Hit ball early to go across court, or late to go down the line. Low to high and wrist action for spin Full court Ability to control your shots using spin (slice and topspin) on at least one side. Demonstrate good technique on drives. Footwork around the court should show anticipation and understanding of tactics. Use of spin/power to attack pressing zones with 75% success with pace and height variation. Full court Demonstrate use of spin (slice and topspin)

on both drives. Employ power in strokes effectively at the right time to win a point or make an opening (windows 1, 2 and 3). Create angles using spin and pace. Show correct positioning on court to play strokes based on opponents target & positioning. Full court Demonstrate effective instruction of peers in relation to their individual ability. Coach a 3-ball feed drill. Work with small groups or individuals to improve drives rating Topspin Hit from low to high. Slice Hit from high to low. Brushing action under & over ball. Strokes with balance, control and followthrough. Position according to shot and opponents response

Vary pace of stroke using back swing. Game 10 shot competitive rally with ball hit to spaces with varying height. Play half court v whole court game winning points by using space in full court. 6 shot Rally to press zones. Co-op play cross-court or downline game. Play 5 game after 4 shots rarely missing in first 4 shots. Rally in 5-game with spin to pressing zones. Take advantage of short balls or good length

hits where opponent is forced back. Early preparation with shot selection Timing - Respond to speed of shot. Use whole body in stroke. Take ball on the rise when prepared early to take time away from opponent. Move into court in response to anticipated shot from opponent. Play competitive points using the 3-point unforced error game. Vary height of shot for situation in game. Game score for both

players adds up to 15+ points. Diagnose errors in strokes. Break sown elements of stroke to simplify. Simple to gradually more complex practices. Player understands how to improve. Use appropriate drills and games to create the situation for pupil to improve use of drives in the game. Diagram Reflection Criteria set a progression for improvement The path to success was broken down

and encouraged goal setting by students Students helped each other improve with highest level grade in a skill category achieved for coaching peers up one level. 15 Self decides guided by Others (peers) Adapted game performance assessment instrument (GPAI)* - uses criteria based on how you play the game Modeled Authentic assessment improved student performance in a game In-process assessment based on tactical awareness and skill execution in game play. *Griffin, L. L., Mitchell, S. A., & Oslin, J. L. (1997). Teaching sport concepts and skills : A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 16

Criteria for game performance Game Performance Components 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Base Recover to position behind or attacking opponents target area. Decision Making - Read with anticipatory movement of movingback to protect play area to then press/defend or moving-in to attack opponents response. Cover Respond with quick split-step preparation as opponent strikes the ball Adjust React to ball with weight-shift movement into shot execution. Shot execution - Efficient performance of selected shot Support - Respond to partner receiving the ball by moving to a position to receive/cover a pass/shot. 17

Game performance and the 4Rs RECOVER Tactical Awareness Player decision-making Cover On-the-ball skill selection then execution Base READ Decision Making Off-the-ball movement skill RESPOND REACT

Adjust Skill execution RECOVER Off-the-ball movement skill 18 A Point 19 Skill 20 Base

21 Base 22 Decision Making 23 Decision Making 24 Cover 25 Cover 26 Adjust

27 Adjust 28 Skill 29 Skill 30 Base 31 Decision Making 32

Cover 33 Adjust 34 Rest of Point 35 Criteria for skill selection and execution Skill Execution Criteria Rating Criteria Showed effective tactical awareness by selecting and executing appropriate on5 the-ball skill for the situation in the rally. Showed good tactical awareness by selecting and mostly executing appropriate 4 on-the-ball skill for the situation in the rally. Showed tactical awareness by attempting the appropriate on-the-ball skill but 3

ineffective execution due to poor positioning and/or shot preparation. Showed inconsistent tactical awareness, at times attempting an inappropriate on2 the-ball skill for the situation in the rally. Showed a lack of tactical awareness with poor on-the-ball skill selection, erratic 1 execution and inappropriate court positioning. 36 Criteria for off-the-ball movement Game Performance Criteria Rating Criteria 5 Effective selection and execution of appropriate off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 4 Generally good selection and execution of appropriate off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 3 Not consistent selection and execution of appropriate off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 2

Uncertain selection and execution of off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 1 Not involved in the play of the game. 37 Level 1 Criteria recording for a point played Point Won () or Lost (X) 1 2 3

Base Decision Cover 5 5 6 7 x 3 8 x x 3

3 13 14 x x 15 x 5 9 10 11 12 Total

Skill Execution 5 x x 4 Adjust 5 4 4 3 4 4 4 4

5 4 3 4 W L (Mode Score) (Mode Score) (Mode Score) (Mode Score)

(Mode Score) 7 8 5 4 3 4 4 38 Level 2 Judging each shot played Shot

Won () or Lost (X) Points 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18 19 20 Total Skill Base Decision Cover Adjust Execution X or X or X or X or

X or x x x x x

x x x x x x x x

W L 4 6 4 100% 0 3 1 75%

5 3 62.5% Key: Appropriate response. X Inappropriate response 4 4 50% 3 1 75% 39 New Idea

Criteria and tally system combined Point Won () or Lost (X) Skill Execution Base Decision Cover Adjust X or 1 2 5

Effective selection and execution of appropriate off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 4 Generally good selection and execution of appropriate off-theball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). Not consistent selection and execution of appropriate off-theball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 3 4 5 6 3 7 8 2

Uncertain selection and execution of off-the-ball movement skill for the GPAI component (base, cover, adjust, support or decision making). 1 Not involved in the play of the game. 9 10 11 12 EXAMPLE 13 14 Skill Execution - Sending the ball back into the court to the appropriate target area-striking the ball in the hitting zone and setting up for recovery. Key: Appropriate response. X Inappropriate response 15

W L (Mode Score) (Mode Score) (Mode Score) (Mode Score) (Mode Score) Point Total Game Performance

Criteria Rating Won () or Lost (X) Base Decision Cover Adjust Skill Execution X or 1 Notes

2 3 4 5 x x x 4 5 4 3 4 x x x

40 Seeing the 4Rs Decision Base Cover Adjust 41 Reflection Students valued each others efforts Students learned to observe game performance as they realized how to READ game play READing led to the 4Rs cycle becoming more meaningful and

automatic 42 Comments from students After course grade was completed students were asked to comment on the game performance assessment instrument (GPAI) process. This is what they said 43 About GPAI assessment process Its a learning environment for both the player and coder, it also prepares you to become a better coach or teacher. Students realise that they are evaluated not in comparison to others, but rather in terms of individual improvement and not just skill performance. 44

Learning about Base As a beginner I was unaware of my poor base. As soon as Kevin pointed it out there was an immediate improvement. 45 Learning Decisions Making Before this class I never read the opponents response to my hit; I would just react. By figuring out whether the opponent is hitting forward or on their back foot I can stay at the baseline or move forward. This is making the game a lot easier and Im winning a lot more points. 46 Learning to Cover and Adjust Reviewing my GPAI form I was relieved to see that my base and

decision-making were excellent my game falls apart in the cover, adjust and skill execution portions. The reason is due to splitstepping being a new idea to me. 47 Finally - Space for practicing Self decides working with Others Attendance and participation: Worth 12 marks equal to 12% of course marks. Failure to attend class will result in marks not be earned. Full attendance and participation will result in 10/12 of marks (approximate mark for each class attended). Evidence of practice outside of class will make up the remaining 2/12 of marks for participation (approximate mark for each practice session). Additional practice outside of class will be considered as make up for any absences from class. Students are required to register class attendance and practices before the class begins (RECORD OF PARTICIPATION). 48

Reflection Participation assessment valued and made it an expectation that students practiced outside of class Students felt they were treated like an adult make up if miss class. Students saw it as a win/win situation - if they practiced it was acknowledged and would lead to better practical performance Recreational habit forming - Class of 24 (2001) only 2 practiced less than 4 times outside class with 8 practicing more than 8 times. Problem to find time with work commitments and course workload 49 Conclusion Progressive assessment techniques that shift responsibility from teacher to students. The GPAI values and diagnoses tactical play, it helps students read game play cues which in turn helps them enjoy playing more. Reading creates a reason for skill practice. In my experience students become more focused on improving skills when they can play a game,

can appreciate the play of a game. I suggest that the combination of assessment tasks moved students towards becoming self-initiated learners of tennis. 50 Why do we assess? Help students to learn Not discourage students from trying Recognize how student improving Combined Assessment methods Teacher to students assessment approaches led students of all ability levels to self-assess and take responsibility for their own development 51 Discussion Can this example be transferred to other activities?

52

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