fMRI ACTIVATION OF THE FUSIFORM GYRUS AND AMYGDALA TO CARTOON ...

SENSORY AND MOTOR MECHANISMS AAKAASH VARMA, ROCCO CAPITINI, MICHAEL SCIORTINO, CHRISTINA GOTSIS The following PowerPoint Presentation consists of a concise overview of Chapter 49 in Campbell & Reeces 7th Edition A.P. Biology Textbook, as well as a series of activities to correspond with each of the following systems covered: sensory, skeletal, and muscular. This PowerPoint Presentation is best viewed as a Slide Show. At the end there is a also a list of online resources to SENSORY RECEPTORS TRANSDUCE STIMULUS ENERGY AND TRANSMIT SIGNALS TO THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

SENSORY RECEPTION Sensations are action potentials that reach brain via sensory neurons Resulting interpretations by brain are called perceptions Sensory reception involves stimulus

detection by sensory receptors Exteroreceptors detect external stimuli Interoreceptors detect internal stimuli TYPES OF SENSORY RECEPTORS MECHANORECEPTORS

Sense physical deformation Bending of plasma membrane increases permeability to sodium and potassium CHEMORECEPTORS Transmit information about total solute concentration of solution or individual molecules Involved in gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell) ELECTROMAGNETIC Detect electromagnetic energy (e.g. visible light, electricity, and magnetism) THERMORECEPTORS Respond to heat/cold Enable adaptation to regulate body temperature

NOCICEPTORS (A.K.A PAIN RECEPTORS) Naked dendrites in epidermis Enable detection of danger SENSORY RECEPTOR FUNCTIONS Transduction Amplification Transmission Integration

Stimulus energy converted into change in membrane potential (receptor potential) Result from opening/closing of ion channels in membrane of receptor Stimulus energy strengthened by cells in sensory pathway May take place in sensory receptors or in structures accessory Receptors release excitatory neurotransmitter, causing sensory neuron to transmit action potentials to the CNS Some may contain an axon, extending into the CNS, others release neurotransmitters at

synapses. Begins when information is received May include a decrease in responsiveness during continued simulation (sensory adaptation) Involves selectivity of receptors in the information transmitted to CNS VISION (SEEING) Light enters thru pupil, regulated by size-changing iris Reaches retina where it is captured by specific photoreceptors, rods and cones,

which distinguish b/w shapes and colors, respectively Upon activation by light, rod cells become polarized, and thus (de)activate neuronal, bipolar cells that transmit light signals through the optic nerve to brain AUDITION (HEARING) GUSTATION (TASTE) OLFACTION (SMELLING)

TACTION (TOUCHING) ACTIVITY: what receptor would you use to sense THE AURORA BOREALIS? A PHOTORECEPTOR, A TYPE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RECEPTOR! ACTIVITY:

what receptor would you use to sense MUSIC? A MECHANORECEPTOR! ACTIVITY: what receptor would you use to sense PERFUME?

AN ODORANT RECEPTOR, A TYPE OF CHEMORECEPTOR! ACTIVITY: what receptor would you use to sense PAIN? A NOCICEPTOR (A.K.A PAIN RECEPTOR)! ACTIVITY:

what receptor would you use to sense PIZZA? A CHEMORECEPTOR! ACTIVITY: what receptor would you use to sense HEAT?

A THERMORECEPTOR! ANIMAL SKELETONS FUNCTION IN SUPPORT, PROTECTION, AND MOVEMENT TYPES OF SKELETONS HYDROSTATIC EXOSKELETON Fluid held under pressure in closed body compartment Muscles to change shape

of fluid-filled compartments to allow for locomotion and form Cushions organs from shock Well suited for aquatic environments but supports crawling/burrowing on land Hard encasement deposited on surface

Molluscs: hinged calcareous (calcium carbonate) shells Arthropods: cuticles composed of chitin in a protein matrix and hardened by calcium salts Molting occurs w/ each growth spurt ENDOSKELETON Hard supporting elements buried w/in soft tissues Sponges: hard spicules of

inorganic material or by softer protein fibers Echinoderms: hard plates (ossicles) Chordates: cartilage/bone Axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column, and rib cage Appendicular skeleton: limb bones and appendage-anchoring HUMAN SKELETAL SYSTEM

ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have AN ENDOSKELETON (HUMAN)! Can survive in most different types of environments if nourished well Has many supporting elements to provide physical support on land Has a great range of flexibility

ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have A HYDROSTATIC SKELETON (EARTHWORM)! Lives in moist soil Moves by a process known as peristalsis It is not raised off ground and is

known to crawl and burrow ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have AN EXOSKELETON (LOBSTERS)! Lives near abrasive shore Requires shielding from dangerous materials, desiccation, and predators

Must molt periodically ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have A HYDROSTATIC SKELETON (FLATWORMS)! Locomotion occurs by muscular alteration of body cavities Subject to shock frequently

Stays close to ground ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have AN ENDOSKELETON (MAMMALS)! Extremely flexible Has many soft tissues Requires a great deal of movement

ACTIVITY: what skeleton would this animal have AN EXOSKELETON (INSECTS)! Very fragile and require protection Present in many habitats Growth requires many moltings MUSCLES OCCUR IN ANTAGONISTIC PAIRS AND MOVE SKELETAL PARTS BY

CONTRACTING SKELETAL MUSCLE STRUCTURE MUSCLE FIBER-BUNDLES each consist of a single, multi-nuclear cell MYOFIBRILS thin actin and thick myosin myofilaments that are bundled to form each muscle fiber SARCOMERES contractile units of muscle that repeat in Aunit-like I BAND,

BAND, frequencies in each myofibril Z LINES single and H ZONE actin filaments that contain form its boundaries SLIDING-FILAMENT MODEL Thin (acti n) filam ents

slide acro ss thick (myo Redu ces widt h of I band s and H

Shor tens Shor tenin g of all sarc omer es in a myo fibril

short UNDERLYING INTERACTIONS REGULATION NEURAL CONTROL Graded contractions of whole muscles can be caused by: Varying number of muscle fibers that contract

Varying rate at which muscle fibers are stimulated Each branched muscle fiber is innervated by 1 motor neuron that may synapse w/ multiple MOTOR UNIT 1 motor neuron muscle fibers and its controlled muscle fibers 1 action potential in a motor neuron produces a twitch More rapidly delivered action

potentials produce a graded contraction by summation TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBERS Brownish-red pigment that binds only in heart Can genera te

action potent ials w/ o input from nervou s syste m Striate d cells that are electri

cally conne cted by interca lated discs mic nervou s syste m Contra

ct slowly, but to a greate r range than striate d muscl es SMOOTH MUSCLE

Found in walls of hollow organs OTHER TYPES OF MUSCLE ACTIVITY: what is the password

MYOFIBRIL! Arranged longitudinally bundles of this comprise a muscle fiber Made of myofilaments ACTIVITY: what is the password CALCIUM (Ca2+) IONS! Bind to troponin complex to expose myosin-binding sites on thin

filament, allowing for contraction ACTIVITY: what is the password SARCOMERE! Repeating unit of a pattern of light/ dark bands, arranged by myofilaments ACTIVITY:

what is the password THIN FILAMENT! Filament w/ two strands of actin, and a strand of regulatory protein ACTIVITY: what is the password MOTOR UNIT! Collective term for a motor neuron

and its controlled muscle fibers ACTIVITY: what is the password TETANUS! Sustained contraction brought about by fusion of twitches that occur in quick succession ACTIVITY:

what is the password SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM! Its membrane pumps calcium (Ca2+) ions from the cytosol into its interior to store them and releases them when an action potential is produced ACTIVITY: what is the password

TROPOMYOSIN! Regulatory protein that blocks myosin-binding sites, keeping fiber at rest ACTIVITY: what is the password MUSCLE FIBER! 1 cell w/ multiple nuclei, running muscle length

ACTIVITY: what is the password TRANSVERSE (T) TUBULES! Infoldings of plasma membrane along which action potentials move to spread deep into a fiber ONLINE RESOURCES SENSORY SYSTEM: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~jshardo/bly2010/nervous/receptor.html

http://www.spc.cc.tx.us/biology/mhartgraves/Bio2401/Lecture %20Notes/Sensory.pdf http://www.biology-online.org/9/8_sensory_systems.htm http://www.slideshare.net/NeurologyGuru/sensory-system SKELETAL SYSTEM: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/humananatomy/skeletal/ skeletalsystem.html http://www.innerbody.com/image/skelfov.html http://lyndarandy.tripod.com/skeletalsystem/id1.html MUSCULAR SYSTEM: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EdHzKYDxrKc http://www.human-body-facts.com/muscular-system.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJ309LfHQ3M&feature=related http://www.besthealth.com/besthealth/bodyguide/reftext/html/

musc_sys_fin.html http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Muscles/Muscle_Sliding-

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