Fluency and Comprehension - PBworks

Fluency Instruction and Assessment TE 402 Week Nine, March 23, 2009 Reading fluency: The ability to read quickly, accurately and with expression. Writing fluency: The ability to write quickly, coherently with automaticity and ease. Objectives QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi We will be able to Identify and describe instructional strategies that build students reading and writing fluency. Evaluate students literacy needs using assessments Participate in book club using roles. Make text-to-text (self) connections between poems. Connect awareness of our culture and the culture of

others to teaching and learning Explain how to use Where Im From poems to inform instruction. Agenda QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Agenda Overview (3 min) Housekeeping (10 min) Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (15 min) Describing your grade level Fluency Discussion (60 min)

What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min) Break (10 min) Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min) Housekeeping Next Week:

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this p New Literacy Project virtual class Write your review by noon, begin to work on your blog How to post the link to your project on the Wiki: Go to the New Literacies Projects Spring 2009 folder on the Sidebar Click on the Edit tab Click on the insert link icon (a globe with a chain link) Choose insert a URL then type in the web address to your project page - if you end up having trouble, just email

the link to the person above you and me so we can access it Housekeeping Working with small groups in the field: Arrange to work with 2 or more students to implement reading or writing lesson - your reflection on these small group lessons will be your participation log entry for the day you teach it Identify 2 or more focus students for reading/writing lessons. Talk with CT about appropriate strategies to use to support the focus students learning. Access any assessments completed by CT that will help

you plan your reading lessons Plan to teach at least 2 reading events (mini-reading/writing lessons) and attach plans to your log (use mini-lesson plan templates provided on ANGEL in the Handouts section) Coming Attractions - New Literacy Project Due dates Due Sunday, 3/29, 11:59 pm New Literacy Project - post on Wiki Due Monday, 3/30, 12:00 pm Review of the project listed below you on the Wiki; answer the questions listed on the Wiki page Due Friday, 4/3, 5:00 pm Post a Blog reflecting on the New Literacy Project

experience - see Wiki for Blog prompt Due Monday, 4/6, 5:00 pm Write a response to your blog group - respond to the whole group or individuals Coming Attractions - Vocabulary Instruction, Week Eleven, 4/6/09 Everyone reads: Tompkins, Chapter 6, Expanding Students Knowledge of Words, pp. 184-213 On ANGEL: Lapp, et. al. (2004). Scaffolding Vocabulary Learning: Ideas for Equity in Urban Settings, pp. 275-289 Finish your book club book and reflect on the question: How does the book help us explore social injustice and human dignity? In the Field: Discuss your need to work with a small group throughout the month of April. Have your CT recommend a group of 2-4 students

that need extra support. Gather assessment data for those students. Give your CT the assignment description Upcoming due dates: Lesson plan reflection due on MONDAY, APRIL 13TH Agenda Agenda Overview (3 min) Housekeeping (10 min) Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (15 min) Describing your grade level

Fluency Discussion (60 min) What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min) Break (10 min) Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min) QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi New Technology Workshop

Get together in the groups below, head to a computer station to share your work so far and work out any kinks you might have - (15 min) Groups: 1. Scrapblogs: Lyndsay B., Andrea, Alison B. 2. Scrapblogs: Katie K., Lisa, Tiffany, Mandy 3. Scrapblogs: Shannon, Kelley, Janie, Lauren 4. Scrapblogs: Jessica, Paula, Rachel W. 5. Websites: Rachael A., Colleen C., Kati H., Liz 6. Websites: Julie, Sara, Lindsay P., Gina 7. Movies, etc.: Brandon, Tim, Colleen G. 8. Comics, etc.: Melissa, Katalin, Alli W. Agenda Agenda Overview (3 min) Housekeeping (10 min)

Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (20 min) Describing your grade level Fluency Discussion (60 min) What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min) Break (10 min) Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min)

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Field Debrief In grade level groups, take 10 minutes to discuss any or all of the following: How would you characterize a ____ grade student? (socially and academically) What content is currently being covered in your classroom? How have you made yourself a part of the classroom and school community? What have you seen that is cause for celebration?

What have you seen that is cause for concern? Groups: K: Melissa, Kelley, Alison, Alli 1: Colleen C., Colleen G., Rachael A., Shannon, Gina 1: Katie K., Kati H., Sara, Lauren, Rachel W. 2: Tiffany, Janie, Jessica, Liz 3: Andrea, Paula, Julie, Lisa 4/5: Tim, Katalin, Lyndsay B. 5/6: Lindsay P., Mandy, Brandon Agenda

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Agenda Overview (3 min) Housekeeping (10 min) Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (20 min) Describing your grade level Fluency Discussion (60 min) What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min)

Break (10 min) Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min) What is fluency? QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Think of fluent/non-fluent readers in your classroom? How would your describe them? What do they sound like? Literacy Framework What is Fluency?

Components of Fluency - Accuracy, Automaticity, Prosody Accuracy in decoding Is the student identifying words quickly and reading at an appropriate rate? Appropriate use of prosodic features Is the student reading accurately? Automaticity in word recognition

QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Is the student attending to punctuation? Reading with expression? Changing tone? A lack of fluency breaks down comprehension A lack of decoding ability breaks down fluency Parts of Prosody QuickTime an decompressor

are needed to see t Tempo: how fast or slow to read the lines Rhythm: which words to stress or say loudly Pitch: when to raise or lower the voice Phrasing: when and how long to pause Developing Fluency Reading, reading, and more reading Reading aloud to model Practicing with a real purpose Level of text - easy vs. instructional Hold your students accountable!

QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Assessing Reading Fluency Running Records Rubrics Words per minute Prosody QuickTime and decompressor are needed to see th Oral Reading Fluency Scale U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

Listening to Children Read Aloud, 15. Washington, DC: 1995 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation. 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation is present. 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence or passage.

1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur-but these are infrequent and/or they do not preserve meaningful syntax. Words per Minute (McGill-Franzen, 2006) Age Reading Rate (WCPM) 6 50-70 7 60-80 8

70-90 9 80-100 Graphing Progress 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 1 2 3

4 5 6 Fluency instruction QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Instruction should address both Automaticity and Prosody You can focus on: Punctuation Acting out punctuation marks Same sentence with different punctuation: I love you Instructional Practices that Build

Fluency (Walpole and McKenna, 2007, p. 73) Most Support Least Support Echo Reading The teacher reads a sentence and then the group rereads it aloud. Choral Reading The teacher leads the entire group reading aloud in unison. Partner Reading Pairs of readers alternate

reading aloud by following a specific turn-taking procedure. Whisper Reading Each child reads aloud (but not in unison) in a quiet voice. Timed Repeated Reading To help children with low reading rates, but adequate decoding and word recognition ability Need short passages slightly above instructional level (about 100 words) and timer QuickTime and decompressor

are needed to see th Timed Repeated Reading Day 1: Teacher listens to each child in group and records initial fluency rate. Day 2: Children practice reading passages. Teacher individually times and provides feedback to children. Day 3: Chart progress of children. If reach 100 words per minute, provide a new passage. QuickTime and decompressor are needed to see th Choral Partner Reading

QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Step 1: Teacher models while children follow along. Step 2: Children read with a partner. Students read chorally. Student taps when ready to read alone. Student taps when wants to read chorally again. Teacher acts as partner for 1 student. Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction

Day 1: Teacher reads selection aloud to class and leads comprehension-focused discussion Day 2: Teacher/student echo reading. Students reread passage to adult for homework. Day 3: Class reads selection chorally. Students reread passage to adult for homework. QuickTime and decompressor are needed to see th Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction Day 4: Students partner-read story. Students reread passage to adult for

homework. Day 5: Students work on extension activity. Teacher individually assesses fluency of children. Phrased Text Lesson QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Purpose: To teach automaticity and prosody. Phrasing text improves both skills. Procedural Details: Step 1:

Mark a short section of text to show phrase boundaries for students Explain the importance of phrasing in oral and silent reading Describes the marks on the text. Step 2: Model reading the text for students Ask them to read chorally in meaningful phrases Ask students to read the text with a partner Step 3: Model how to break sentence into phrases Have students practice breaking sentences into phrases Setting: Whole-class or small group, depending on the needs of students Grade-Levels: 1 through 5. Developing Writing Fluency How might the following activities develop writing fluency? Quick Write Interactive Writing Model Writing Spelling Activities Word Walls Dictation

Developing Writing Fluency Writing, writing, writing Integrate writing across curriculum Charting how many correct words per minute When would good invented spellings count? When do you just look at ideas and sentence construction? Assessing Writing Fluency Look for: Ideas Speed Automaticity Ease Writing Vocabulary

10 minutes to write all words you can write http://www.cliontheweb.org/pd_asamp1a.html More Reading Fluency Activities Types of Choral Reading: Echo reading: leader reads each line and the group repeats it Leader and chorus: leader reads the main part and the group reads the refrain or chorus in unison Small-group reading: group sub-divides and each group reads one part of the poem

Cumulative reading: one student/group reads the first line, another student/group joins in as each line or stanza is read so that a cumulative effect is created. Other Fluency Activities Partner reading: in pairs, students read the text, switching every sentence, paragraph, page (whatever makes sense for the text) Readers theater: students read the story as a play (either a prewritten script or write their own) Putting it all Together QuickTime an decompressor are needed to see t Putting it all Together

Work with a partner Examine the assessments in the packet For each student (Miranda, Devounte, Julia), answer the following questions: What might be holding the student back? What instructional actions could be taken to improve achievement? Think of several instructional activities you could implement. What else do you want to know about the student? Break Return at:11:10 Agenda

QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Agenda Overview (3 min) Housekeeping (10 min) Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (20 min) Describing your grade level Fluency Discussion (60 min) What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min) Break (10 min)

Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min) Book Club QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this pict Use roles to perform book club (15 minutes) Reflect on book club -- How were the response based discussions different from

the role based discussions? Which did you prefer? (5 minutes) Finish your book by April 6 Agenda QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see thi Agenda Overview (3 min)

Housekeeping (10 min) Announcements Next week, Working with small groups; New Literacies Wiki posting your link; Coming Attractions New technology workshop (15 min) Field Debrief (20 min) Describing your grade level Fluency Discussion (60 min) What is fluency? (10 minutes) Mini-lecture (20 min) Reading and Writing Fluency Putting it all together: Assessing students (30 min) Break (10 min) Book Club (20 min) Where Im From (30 min) I am From Poems As I teach, I project the condition of my soul onto my students, my subject, and our way of being together.

The entanglements I experience in the classroom are often no more or less than the convolutions of my inner life. Viewed from this angle, teaching holds a mirror to the soul. If I am willing to look in that mirror, and not run from what I see, I have a chance to gain selfknowledge -- and knowing myself is as crucial to good teaching as knowing my students and my subject ~Parker J. Palmer, The Courage to Teach Critical awareness may be somehow enhanced, as new possibilities open for reflection. Poetry does not offer us empirical or documentary truth, but it enables us to know in unique ways. ~Maxine Greene, The Dialectic of Freedom, 1988 I am From Poems Where are we from? In table groups of , take turns reading your poems to each other What did you learn about your colleagues

culture by reading their poems? How can you use this information in your class?

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