First People of South Dakota -

First People of South Dakota Archaeologists Dig up old things Weapons

Tools Household items (forks, spoons, cups, bowls) Written records Clovis Hunters Lived during the prehistoric

period (11,000 years ago) Hunted mammoths Died away-dont know why Plains Archaic People Migrated to South Dakota

Hunted Buffalo Deer Rabbits Berries Turnips Petroglyphs-

pictures on a rock Tell us what these people were like Woodland People Hunted Berries Nuts

Deer Buffalo Rabbits Traded with natives from the area Built mounds to honor deceased people

Middle Missouri People Men hunted buffalo Women farmed Corn Beans Squash Tobacco

Sunflowers Pumpkins Dug cache pits for storing food Lived in round mud and clay houses Daub house mud and clay

Cache Pit Natives of South Dakota Arikaras Sioux 1700

Arikaras Lived near Missouri River Built rounded houses & dug them into the earth Traded corn, tobacco, & vegetables for meat & buffalo hides

Traded for horses with Europeans Sioux Hunted in the deep woods Fished Lived

in houses made of bark and wood 3 different tribes- had different customs and languages Dakota Lakota Nakota Lived

as nomads- people who move around Records Oral traditions Told stories of the past

Storytellers memorized stories and passed them from generation to generation Winter Count Drew picture on buffalo hide Drew most important event of the

year Buffalo (Tatanka) Used for Food Shelter

Clothes Tools Hunting Practices Round up Buffalo jump Dressed up as wolves

Europe Claims Land Great Britain France Spain Explorers 1743

LaVerendrye Brothers- France Buried a lead plate on a hill near Fort Pierre Lewis & Clark 1804-1806 President Jefferson bought Louisiana Purchase from the French

Asked to explore the Louisiana Purchase for a way to get to the Pacific Ocean 8,000 mile long journey stretching from St. Louis, MO to Pacific Ocean Sailed through South Dakota 2 times Fur Trade: Booming Business

Missouri River was helpful with fur trade Brought people to trade furs Took furs to other states Took other goods to other states Many

explorers came to South Dakota to start fur trading businesses Rendezvous- trade meeting between Indians and traders Traded furs and news Danced, sang, and feasted together Fur Traders 1806

Manuel Lisa Fur trader who started the Missouri River Fur Company 1817 Joseph LaFramboise- French-Canadian Starts fur trading company near Fort Pierre

1831 Pierre Chouteau Starts American Fur Trading Company near Fort Pierre Hugh Glass Jedediah Smith

Steamboats Yellowstone Could carry more cargo and go longer distances Brought goods and people Artists, missionaries, and writers

People brought smallpox Deadly disease Spread quickly through Arikara villagesArikaras joined Mandans in North Dakota Fur trade began to slow down because there were no more buffalo for hunting

Moving West Settlers Move Through Settlers traveled west to Oregon to settle Settlers drove away wildlife and

made buffalo scarce Indians took from settlers Oxen Mules Horses Other goods Settlers and Indians became

Fort Laramie Meeting1851 Indians and United States talked about problems at Fort Laramie Indians promised: Stop fighting white settlers and other Indians

Allowed United States to build roads United States promised: Keep white settlers off Indian land Give Indians food and tools Both

didnt keep their agreement New Problems-1854 Settlers said a Lakota man stole a cow Soldiers tried to arrest the man

but were killed General William S. Harney Led an attack on Lakota camp Marched to Fort Pierre Built Fort Randall (at Yankton) Indian Reservations John

B. S. Todd Quit army to start a trading post Talked with Nakota Chief Struck-bythe-Ree Went to Washington D.C. Nakota Indians agreed to live on a reserved part of the land called a reservation United States gave Indians

$1,500,000 of food and supply for 50 years for land Settlers Move In Settlers moved to Yankton

Sioux Falls Vermillion Elk Point Bon Homme Settlers wanted South Dakota to become a state President Lincoln created Dakota

Territory in 1861 Dakota Territory William Jayne- first governor of Dakota Territory Yankton was the capital city Took a census to see how many

people lived in Dakota Territory Grew slowly because people thought it was too dangerous Indian Trouble Indians traded much land to United States for money and

supplies Indians lived on reservations United States didnt pay because they didnt have money Indians became angry and attacked white settlements Settlers moved to a fort to have the army protect them

Bozeman Trail Bozeman Trail opened to allow more people to move west Indians were scared the white people would take away their lands Red Cloud, Lakota leader, told

the government if they opened the Bozeman Trail there would be a war Red Clouds War Lakota warriors attacked wagons traveling along the Bozeman Trail

Army sent soldiers to fight but the Indians killed them Crazy Horse was a leader in this battle United States wanted peace Fort Laramie Treaty ended the war Fort Laramie Treaty of

1868 Bozeman Trail was closed Indians had to give up land Paid with money and supplies Indians were forced to live on

reservations The Great Sioux Reservation Land west of the Missouri River to the Wyoming border Included the Black Hills (Paha Sapa) The Black Hills Gold Rush 1874

Start of the Gold Rush General George Custer Order to explore the Black Hills Look for place to build a fort Look for gold Custer

found gold Newspapers wrote about it White people were not allowed on land because of the Fort Laramie Treaty No One Can Enter Many

people went illegally into the Black Hills The Gordon Party came from Sioux City, Iowa into the Black Hills Soldiers forced Gordon Party to leave Soldiers gave up trying to keep

people from coming into the Black Hills Indian Trouble Again Indians went off the reservations to hunt

Indians refused to go back until they were done hunting Battle of the Little Bighorn General Custer led an attack on Indians

Custer didnt wait until the other armies came to help All of Custers army was killed Gold Rush Boom 1876 25,000 people lived in Black HIlls Many different people came

White settlers Chinese Blacks Other immigrants People found gold near Custer

Hill City Deadwood Lead The Great Dakota Boom 1880s Railroads Arrive 2

railroad companies came through Dakota Territory Chicago North Western Railroad Chicago Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad Railroads

covered all of eastern Dakota Territory within 10 years Railroads helped towns grow Railroads shipped crops and livestock Population Increases Farmers

raced to start farming Homestead Act of 1862 Many got free homesteads Homesteads were 160 acres Had to live there for 5 years Southern

Dakota Territory exploded 82,000 1880 249,000- 1885 329,000- 1890 Growth of Towns Towns

grew along the railroad Stores filled Main Streets Hardware stores General stores Newspapers Railroad depots were the busiest

places Schools Churches Growth of Agriculture East River

Farming done with oxen and horses Wives and children helped Planted wheat, corn, soybeans Raised cattle, hogs, sheep West River

Ranching- raise cattle Cattle Rustlers stole cattle Ed Lemmon & James Scotty Philip were some of the first cowboys in the west Immigrants Arrive Where did they come from?

Immigrants came from: Eastern states Southern states Western states Foreign countries Germany

Norway Poland What did they do? Farmers Blacksmiths Hotel Keepers

Cleaning women Store keepers German-Russians Germans moved to Russia because of their religious beliefs Didnt want to join the army

Russia said they wouldnt have to join the army 100 years later Russia changed its mind and decided they would have to join the army German-Russians fled to United States Brought Turkey Red wheat seeds to plant Hutterite Colonies

Hutterites lived together in colonies Didnt have private property Ate together Spoke German language Successful farmers; used old and

new ways of farming Native Americans White people took their land Forced to live like white people Buffalo were driven away or killed Children

were sent to boarding schools Use of native language was forbidden Couldnt perform religious ceremonies Reservations became smaller Poor farming land After 1890, there were 7 reservations

Statehood of South Dakota November 2, 1889 Pushing for Statehood Federal law stated a territory

must have 60,000 people to become a state Dakota Territory had been a territory for 18 years People Pushing for Statehood Dr.

Joseph Ward- Father of Statehood William Henry Harrison Beadle- in charge of public education in Dakota Territory Hugh J. Campbell- Lawyer Richard Pettigrew Became first South Dakota Senator Arthur Mellette

Friends with Benjamin Harrison Appointed governor of Dakota Territory Elected as first governor of South Dakota Richard Pettigrew Arthur Mellette

Becoming South Dakota President Benjamin Harrison helped pass a law to make South Dakota a state We had to write a state constitution and have it approved by voters

Constitution was approved in October On November 2, 1889 South Dakota became the 40th state of Choosing a Capital City Bismarck was the capital city in

Dakota Territory Huron and Pierre wanted to be capital Pierre More central location Railroad center Huron Growing town Center of population

Pierre became the capital city Native Americans in South Dakota White settlers wanted to open up

reservations 1889- Indians signed a treaty that gave 9 million acres of reservation land to the government This made the Indians angry Forced to give up land Didnt get food and supplies like promised Buffalo driven out Not good land to grow crops

The Ghost Dance & Wounded Knee Massacre Indians were told to do the Ghost Dance to regain power and buffalo 1890- Sioux were doing Ghost Dance White settlers were afraid

Soldiers were called in to South Dakota Chief Sitting Bull was killed Army attacked the Sioux people at Wounded Knee Creek 300 Indians died; 30 soldiers died

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