Finding Your Way Into a Topic

Expository vs. Persuasion Sorting Activity 1. Sort your envelope of cards into two columns titled Expository Writing and Persuasive Writing. 2. Try to come to agreement in your group. 3. Be prepared to defend your choice with evidence from the card. 4. If you finish before the rest of the class, match up the persuasive characteristic with its expository partner. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing definition In persuasive writing, a writer takes a position FOR or AGAINST an issue and writes to convince the reader to believe or do something.

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Persuasive Writing Clear position Audience awareness Persuasive language Rhetorical questions Semantics: Connotation vs. Denotation

Euphemism Persuasive strategies Inclusion of statistics Expert testimony Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Persuasive Writing Organizational Structures

Order of Importance Causal Chain Concession/Rebuttal (or counter argument) Cause and Effect Problem/Solution Definition Combination of several structures Introductions

Conclusions Explanation/Definition Scenario/Anecdote Questioning Call to action Predict outcome Offer a solution

Assessment Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Purposes of Persuasion Support a cause Urge people to action Promote change Refute a theory Arouse sympathy

Stimulate interest Win agreement Solve a problem Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Urge people to action Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Support a cause

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Stir up sympathy Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Prove something wrong

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Make a change Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Get people to agree with you Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Persuasion is Powerful Use it to: Create interest Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. What Persuades You? Why do you decide to go along with something? How do you convince others to go along with you?

How persuasive are you? Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Who Should Win? You will be working in small groups. There are only enough _______ today for one group. Think of reasons why your group should get the ______. Persuade the class that your group should be rewarded. Your groups task is work together to write your best arguments. You will have 15 minutes.

Your classmates will be voting for the best group. Keep in mind that you will not be able to vote for your own group. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Who Should Win? Present Your Case Appoint a member of your group to draw a number to decide which team presents its case first. Decide how you will present your information (one or

more people). Present your case when its your turn. Teams should present without interruption or questions. Take notes about each teams position, arguments, and support (noting the teams number). Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Who Should Win? Vote and Discuss Vote on which group presented the best case.

You cannot vote for your own team. Each individual can only vote once. Discuss why you voted the way you did. Discuss the persuasive strategies you used or observed. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Writing Essentials Audience Awareness Firm Position Persuasive Language Organizational Structure Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness

Know your audience before you start writing. The audience is who will read your writing. The audience may include your teacher, your parents, your friends, or the President of the United States. Think about the needs of your reader (audience) so you can give reasons that will persuade him/her. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness Knowing your audience helps you to decide

how to connect with the ideas, knowledge, or beliefs of the person or group. what information to include. how informal or formal the language should be. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness example Dear Mrs. Gillingham, Imagine you were a student, sitting in algebra when your teacher says, Okay, get out your homework. You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize -oh no! You left your homework at home, perfectly done. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Audience Awareness application Form groups of 3 or 4. Write a short letter persuading someone to give your group a video game. You will find out your audience by drawing a card. Your teacher holds the cards. Dont tell anyone who your audience is. Keep it secret. Do not include the name of the audience in your letter. Where you would put the name, draw a blank line. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Audience Awareness follow up Each group will read its letter without naming the audience. As you listen, write down who you think the audience might be. Discuss why it was difficult or easy to figure out the audience. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position The writer must have a clear position and stay focused on that position. Generally, the

position is stated in the opening paragraph or introduction. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position example Anxiety creases the brows of many students trying to finish their homework on time. If they dont finish on time, they wont get any credit. Having a no late homework rule is a very bad idea. Students grades will drop, their work will be of lesser quality, and school wont feel as welcoming. Students wont be able to do work worth a lot of merit. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position Find the Position Statement I think late homework should be accepted. Imagine you were a student sitting in your math class when your teacher says,

Okay, get out your homework! You rustle around in your backpack for a while until you realize oh no! You left your homework at home perfectly done. The teacher comes by your desk and you say, I am sorry. I left my homework at home. My mom just had a baby, so I was taking care of her, and I just ran out the door without it. Your teacher smiles at you. Its okay. I understand. Just bring it in tomorrow. Isnt that a better situation than Oh too bad! You dont get any credit for it? Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position Find the Position Statement Im sorry! Sorry isnt good enough! This assignment was due yesterday, not today. Here I am on my knees begging for mercy at my teachers feet. Tears forming in my eyes, I feel like an outof-order water fountain ready to explode! I sigh and back away like a puppy dog with its tail between its legs. I slump back down in my plastic, red chair and stare at the metal desk. I worked so hard, I muttered silently to myself. The teacher turned her back

on me and continued on with todays lesson. I am against the no late homework rule because some students did the work but forgot it at home, and others forgot about the assignment but make it up the next day. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Clear Position application Choose one of the purposes for persuasion. Work with a partner to choose an appropriate issue for that purpose. Write a strong position statement for that issue and

purpose. This should be a complete sentence. Write an introductory paragraph that includes your position. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Connotation and denotation Define the following words. Generate connotations. Discuss which words have positive, neutral, or negative connotations.

Group, throng, mob Insinuate, suggest, imply Slow, challenged, retarded Thin, skinny, scrawny Gentle, benign, harmless Persnickety, selective, finicky, picky Create your own groupings of words with similar denotations, but varying connotations. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Euphemism A euphemism is the substitution of a mild, indirect,

or vague expression for an expression thought of as harsh or blunt. Discuss the following and generate more euphemistic expressions for each blunt word or expression. Pass away vs. To die Powder Room vs. Toilet Humanitarian Intervention vs. War Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Persuasive language is choosing just the right words or phrases to use at just the right time with just the right

audience. Strong words trigger strong feelings. Effective choice of connotations Seizes

Snarls Dumbstruck Mean or strict Late fee or extended-viewing fee Used or pre-owned Surge or escalate Repeated words or phrases for emphasis I have a dream(Martin Luther King, Jr.) Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Find Words that Could Be More Effective You are a high school student. Essay in one hand, you go to class. Im done! You smile. The teacher takes the essay out of your hands and throws it away. She says, Its a

day late! You look at your hard work. The teacher didnt look at it! The No Late Homework Rule is bad. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Language Imagine yourself as a high school student. Five page essay in one hand, you rush into the classroom. Im done! Im done! you pant, beaming proudly. The teacher seizes the essay out of your grasp and tears it to pieces before your eyes. She snarls, Its a day late! On your knees, you stare dumbstruck at your hard work, ripped to shreds. The teacher didnt even glance at it! The No Late Homework Rule is a cruel, horrible rule. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Audience Awareness and Persuasive Language application

A philanthropic foundation is giving away an allexpense paid trip to Disneyland. Write a letter persuading this foundation that you deserve the gift. Select and use the precise language that would be the most persuasive for this audience. Underline specific words or phrases that you think are the most persuasive for your audience. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Organizational Structures Order of Importance Causal Chain

Concession/Rebuttal Cause/Effect Problem/Solution Definition Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structures

The persuasive structures you select depend on the ideas in your paper and your audience. Persuasive organization frequently is very different from expository organization. As we look at different structures, we will see how they effect the organization of the paper. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure Order of Importance Support for a position prioritized from most to least or least to most important Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Order of Importance Homework should be abolished because students are too busy after school to make up for what teachers cant seem to find time to teach during the day. Some students are athletes or participate in club activities while many students spend their after-school time working. These young adults dont have time to re-work algebra problems! If youre a successful athlete, you may be lucky enough to get money to go to college thats more important than recopying an essay! Clubs may serve as practice for the work force. But what really counts in a teens life would be to work in order to live, help out the family by taking care of siblings, or save money for college. In the face of these responsibilities or chances to improve life, what student would instead choose to review history notes? Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Order of Importance Discuss Approaches Recently, a citizens group proposed a change to the

rules for obtaining a drivers license. The group has proposed that high school students have at least a B average in order to get a drivers license. Take a position on this proposal. Write a letter to the editor of your local paper to persuade voters to agree with your position. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Order of Importance application Think about the prompt on the previous slide. Take a position on the issue. Brainstorm arguments that support your position. List your arguments in two ways:

From most important to least important. From least important to most important. Discuss Which order seems to be the best fit for your audience? Why? Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Order of Importance Transitional Phrases

Of most importance Primarily Significantly Of particular concern Foremost, furthermore The most, greatest In particular

Most bothersome Particularly difficult The worst Of greatest concern Of less (or least) importance Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Order of Importance application Prompt Recently, a citizens group proposed a change to the rules for obtaining a drivers license. The group has proposed that high school students have at least a B average in order to get a drivers license. Take a position on this

proposal. Write a letter to the editor of your local paper to persuade voters to agree with your position. Apply the order of importance strategy to your paper. Select and apply appropriate transitions as you write. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure Causal Chain A culminating chain of events where one action leads to the next (snowball or domino effect)

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain For me school starts at 7:30, which means I need to leave my house at 7:00 or 7:05. But for other students who ride the bus they must be ready far earlier than that. I see people half asleep standing outside waiting for that big yellow bus to take them to a long, tiring day at school. I think if school started later it would put many people at ease. Even if you get that extra half an hour of sleep, it can do wonders. You wont be tired for that first period test, you wont have to take that nap second period and miss your history notes, and you wont miss breakfast and have to spend class time counting down the minutes to lunch. Many things would be so much better if school started later. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain Definition

This is about a ballooning cause and effect. Event A causes event B, which in turn causes event C, etc. This organizational structure may be used for an entire essay or just a portion of it. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain Read the sample papers. Identify the sections of each paper that match

the definition of causal chain. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain Transitional Phrases After Consequently Since, because Before Meanwhile, while

At that time Preceding Although Earlier Finally During Every time Soon Simultaneously

As a result This will lead to Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Causal Chain application Prompt To improve student learning, the school board is proposing required daily homework for every class. Take a position on this proposal. In a multiparagraph letter, persuade the school board to support your position. Apply the causal chain strategy to your paper. Select and apply appropriate transitions as you write. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Organizational Structure Concession/Rebuttal Recognizing the opposing viewpoint Conceding something may have some merit Then countering with another argument Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Take it up a notch! What do the words concession/rebuttal mean to you?

Where have you experienced concession? Where have you experienced rebuttal? Defend why it might be a good idea to use concession and rebuttal. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal There is nothing more important to students than the ability to express their unique sense of self. Whether its grunge, goth, or glam, each student at our high school is a person whose voice must be heard. Dress codes would turn us all into a bland, uniform mass of white and navy. Having a school dress code might improve discipline, which might be true in schools where students fight over shoes, but enforcing a dress code will cause student rebellion, generating even more discipline issues than we have now. Some say a dress code will reduce the numbers of cliques in school, but students will adapt and find new ways to express themselves. Hairstyles, piercings, and tattoos will not just prove which group the student belongs to, but will make students

even more of a discipline problem when the tattoos permanently express youth distress. We are still individuals and should be allowed to express ourselves, and allowed our civil rights. Students must never be forced to wear uniforms at the school boards wishes. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal A reader of your essay is more likely to listen to you if you show you can see his/her point of view before you counter that argument. Concession is when you acknowledge or consider

the opposing viewpoint, conceding something that has some merit. Rebuttal is when your own argument proves the other side to be flawed, and shows your argument is stronger. Read the Cell Phone articles and highlight areas of concession and rebuttal. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal Looking at the Other Side Concession is a strategy.

Rebuttal is a strategy. Concede only one or two points. Choose what you concede strategically. Not everything needs rebuttal. Rebut the most important or most easily supported points. Students have used Concession/Rebuttal successfully on the WASL. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal Transitional Phrases

It is true thathowevertherefore Certainlybutin short Admittedlyon the other handso Of courseneverthelessas a result Obviouslyon the contraryfinally Surehoweverin addition Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal example one Find the transitions in this paragraph. It is true that students should not have headphones on when their teachers are giving a lesson. Students should not be allowed to block out their teachers. However, when every member of the class is working individually after important information has

been given, listening to music can be a helpful learning tool. It would create a more relaxing, calm environment for learning. Some students can concentrate more while listening to music. As a result grades could go up and it would definitely make school more enjoyable. Therefore, our school should allow headphones in the classroom. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal student sample Example 1 It is true that students should not have headphones on when their teachers are giving a lesson. Students should not be allowed to block out their teachers. However, when every member of the class is working individually after important information has been given, listening to music can be a helpful learning tool. It would create a more relaxing, calm environment for learning. Some students can concentrate more while listening to music. As a result grades could go up and it would definitely make school more enjoyable. Therefore, our school should allow headphones

in the classroom. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Concession/Rebuttal student sample Example 2 Find the transitions some were not listed. Certainly, some students abuse the absentee policy and lie about being sick. They usually try to get out of school for one reason or the other. But the majority of students stay home because they are sick. When a student is sick, he should be focusing on getting better, not worrying about missing classes and grades. Also when a student comes to school when he is sick because he doesnt want to lose credits, he is not helping himself. Chances are he'll have trouble concentrating and won't learn anything. In fact, he will probably be spreading germs to other students. The bottom line is a student has no control over when he is going to get sick. It would be better for everyone if excused absences were dismissed. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Concession/Rebuttal student sample Example 2 Certainly, some students abuse the absentee policy and lie about being sick. They usually try to get out of school for one reason or the other. But the majority of students stay home because they are sick. When a student is sick, he should be focusing on getting better, not worrying about missing classes and grades. Also when a student comes to school when he is sick because he doesnt want to lose credits, he is not helping himself. Chances are he'll have trouble concentrating and won't learn anything. In fact, he will probably be spreading germs to other students. The bottom line is a student has no control over when he is going to get sick. It would be better for everyone if excused absences were dismissed. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure Cause/Effect

Explain why something happened and what came about as a result. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Cause/Effect example Just stay home. The unexcused absence policy at our school is ineffective and needs to be changed. Currently, this policy actually encourages misbehaving. If students skip class, they get one hour of detention. If they then fail to report to detention for three days in a row, they receive one day of at-home suspension. Therefore, this policy punishes a student who skips class by letting them stay home. This actually gives the student more time away from school just what the school doesnt want. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Cause/Effect Transitional Phrases Because As a result of Consequently Due to Since For this reason Accordingly For

Therefore Hence Furthermore If/Then Thus Although Owing to So

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure Problem/Solution Explain the problem or issue, and suggest how it can be solved. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Problem/Solution example Because the world dumps tons of garbage and waste onto the planet every day, recycling should become the law. The real problem is that every week, each family of four generates enough trash to fill two 32 gallon garbage cans. This happens because people are lazy, have busy lives, and buy products with excessive packaging. If people knew there was an immediate consequence for this waste, they would be more inclined to

recycle. We must acknowledge that no one likes to pay a fine or have the government tell them what to do, but if recycling were required, we could reduce the amount of trash produced by at least 50%. The best solution to curbing pollution is to enforce recycling by law. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Problem/Solution Transitional Phrases A possible remedy The best solution A better way A feasible solution

The proposed solution The real problem is The underlying issue is The specific problem We must acknowledge Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Organizational Structure Definition Define the elements of a concept, and explain

how, or whether or not, your definition fits or does not fit. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Definition example Just because the food gets to your table quickly, this doesnt mean that the breakfast caf down the street is a fast food restaurant. If there is a waitress or a waiter, you know youre not in a fast food restaurant. If theres a menu on the table and not on a display over the cash register, then youre not eating fast food. When you eat with a plate and utensils, you pay for your meal after you eat, and are expected to tip the server, then youre not at a fast food restaurant. The meal may be greasy, quick, and cheap, but thats not enough to tell you that where you are is a fast food restaurant. The key elements of fast food meals are pre-paid, packaged, served perfunctorily without wait-staff, and selected from a sign over the cashiers head. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Definition Transitional Phrases To illustrate This means/doesnt mean Thats not enough to define This signifies/constitutes A key element of Within the category of The first criteria is

Other transitions that may help for this structure If/then In contrast For example To explain Whereas Furthermore As well as

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Organizational Structures Identification Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Organizational Structures Order of importance Topics are prioritized from most to least or least to most

Causal chain A culminating chain of events where one thing leads to the next (snowball or domino effect) Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Organizational Structures Concession/Rebuttal Organization Acknowledging or recognizing the opposing viewpoint

Conceding something that has some merit Then countering with another argument Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Organizational Structures Cause/effect Problem/solution Explain the problem or issue, and suggest how it can be

solved. Definition Explain why something happened, and what came about as a result. Define the elements of a concept, and explain how, or whether or not, your definition fits. Combination Effective papers often use a combination of several structures. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Persuasive Introductions Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions Purpose grabs the readers attention. implies an organizational structure of the paper.

is connected to the body of the writing and is a clear lead-in to the position. includes a position that is stated or implied. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Ineffective Persuasive Introduction I am strongly against your proposal for required homework in every class for many good reasons. Some of these reasons are that there is too much homework already, kids want to have fun in school, and finally, everyone would have to work harder. I will begin by telling you why I think we have too much homework. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions Some persuasive introduction strategies

Scenario/Anecdote: The writer provides hypothetical or personal examples to illustrate the topic. Inquiry/Questioning: The writer asks thoughtprovoking, maybe even edgy, questions to capture the readers interest. Preparatory Definition/Explanation: The writer defines or explains the subject before discussing it in detail. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions sample one Who in their right mind thought that high school students should get up in the dark when their natural

rhythm is just the opposite? Who in their right mind would put the most inexperienced drivers on the road before the sun is even up? What parents in their right minds would sign up for a morning fight 180 days a year? What teacher in his or her right mind would want to motivate a somnambulant first period class? Only someone who is actually in their right mind would move the start time of high school to a sensible 10 am. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions sample two The majority of high schools have kept a starting time that was begun in the 1920s when students needed to get back to their farms to tend to chores. This means that class still starts at 7:30 am, which current research proves is the worst time for the teen mind. Why then do we continue to use a system that we know doesnt work well for the very students that the school is trying to teach? To ensure student success, we must change our

schedule to start school at 10 am. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions sample three It is 5:45 a.m. Time to get up. Mom, just a little longer, I beg. Six oclock rolls around; time to get up. OK, Mom. I am getting up, I say as my eyes drift back shut. It is now 6:25 and I spring up out of bed and try to get ready in time to leave at 7:00. Skipping breakfast, a mistake I will regret later, this is my typical morning. So, as a high school student, I know the concerns that people have expressed about the starting time for school. School starts too early, and I agree it should be started later and held an equal time longer. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions student sample one First draft

Today the cell phone is considered a prerequisite for becoming a teenager. The sound of a ring or a buzz has become normal and is often dismissed as nothing. Some schools however are taking a stand against the wireless device. Schools in New York often use metal detectors not only to catch knives and guns but also cell phones. The cell phone has had nothing but a bad influence in schools because many students use them to cheat on tests, text during class, or take inappropriate pictures in the locker room. Revised draft The class is silently taking a test and every student is concentrating for the last few precious moments. Suddenly

the theme song from the O.C. comes on. Every childs head is turned to the noise; the blushing student says sorry and hurriedly turns his phone to vibrate. The teacher then collects the papers even though many have blanks at the bottom. Cell phones in schools are just another nuisance many students could live without. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introductions student sample two First draft Cell phones have become more and more frequently used in our modern and technologically advanced lives. Many people, mostly men and women from older generations, become quite annoyed when

someone whips out their cell phone in a public place or right in the middle of a personal conversation. But when cell phones are used at appropriate times and for appropriate purposes, they make our lives so much more convenient. Cell phones should be left to use in the hands of Lawrence Public school students during school under the right guidelines. Cell phones provide easy communication between students in making after school arrangements and for medical and safety purposes. Revised draft Ring! Ring! Suzy Sophomore reaches into her purse to find her pink Razor. Goodness, Im so sorry; I thought I turned this thing off. Everyones eyes divert to Suzy as some of the other students snicker and Mr. Nelson rolls his

eyes, waiting impatiently. Mr. Nelson casually strides over to Suzys desk and takes away the phone for the rest of the period. This has happened twice today in his class, and he is becoming quite agitated for this interruption during his lesson. Instances such as these occur frequently in Lawrence Public Schools. Having a No cell phone on school grounds policy would prevent these occurrences and would benefit students and teachers greatly. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Introduction Strategies application

Return to your baseline paper (Starting School Two Hours Later). Consider introduction strategies you have learned and revise your introduction to make it more effective. Turn in your original copy and the revision. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Conclusions Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Conclusions Purpose

clearly connects introduction and body of the paper. gives a sense of completion. does more than restate your arguments and position. gives the reader something to think about. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusion Strategies

Call to Action: the writer implores the audience to change. Offer a Solution: the writer suggests some possibilities to resolve the problem posed. Make a Prediction: similar to a startling statement, this can be a warning or an encouragement. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. An Ineffective Conclusion I have given you three truthful explanations of why daily homework is an abomination to the high school. This is due to problems with participants in after school events, the time we spend with our families, and our jobs. Thank you for allowing me to express my feelings.

Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Call to Action Include a final appeal to reinforce your argument. Clearly and forcefully state your desired action. Give information needed to take that recommended action. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Call to Action

student sample Daily mandatory homework for high school students would serve no real worthwhile purpose but to unnecessarily stress out students and teachers alike. Teachers and students are busy, stressed, preoccupied, and quite frankly, strung-out enough as it is without this. Please, I urge you not to put this in effect. Not simply because I dont want homework for all seven classes every day, but because it would truly be detrimental to everyone actively participating in the public school now and in the future. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Offer a Solution Restate the problem. Define and develop the solution.

Focus on the strengths of the solution. This strategy differs from a call to action. More of a recommendation Stresses the solution to a problem Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Offer a Solution student sample According to high schools with the highest test scores

across the country, homework is only necessary when an individual student doesnt understand a concept or needs additional practice. Therefore, mandatory homework in every class would be meaningless. Instead, teachers should assign homework on an individual basis. This solution would provide students with needed practice without needless busywork for students and endless grading for teachers. When students work on just their own weaknesses, rather than work assigned to the whole class, they will quickly see improvement and will be more motivated to stay in school. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Make a Prediction

Takes the argument a step further than a summary Keeps the reader thinking after reading your essay Is based on the main points (arguments), creating joy, hope, gloom, suspense, etc. Draws readers attention to the significance of the argument Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions Make a Prediction student sample Imagine an empty classroom. As students trickle in, without a word, they immediately take out a piece of paper and a pencil to start writing down todays homework assignment. The teacher walks to the front of the class to admire her focused students as they work

silently. Ring! Class is in session. We can make this longed-for dream a reality. Our high schools motto has always been Be the Best You Can Be and if the required homework proposal is implemented, we really would be. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions student sample one First draft My plan seems very hard for teenagers to achieve, but it is not impossible. Maybe one day I can do this. If not me, hopefully someone else. Revised draft So if my plan really worked and some people helped me out, tons

of people who lost their family would feel better. My friends and I would go to NYC and help the people who have no one anymore. They wouldnt feel as lonely and they would know that there are still good people in the world. I hope one day I or someone else could do this. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusions student sample two First draft In my mind this is pretty doable. But many schools have been trying for a long time to change hazing and have made many errors and are still on the brink of trying to stop

this conflict, and need more discipline to make this idea work. What would help to make it work is have a national meeting in Washington D.C. and have all the people willing to help change this problem and have a better result than what it is now. Revised draft My idea compared to others is a plan that can work, but only if we have many people pitch in and help, or make other suggestions on how we could change the problem or hazing younger students. Many people believe there isnt a problem with bullying at our school, but the truth is they dont see whats going on when there is no teacher or adult in sight. If my

suggestion were acted on and if the people that bully others could really see what theyre doing to the victims, then I think they would understand that what theyre doing is wrong. So bring this plan into action, and have the bullies learn what life is like for the students they bully. This would stop the hazing in our school. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Conclusion Strategies application Return to your baseline paper (Starting

School Two Hours Later). Consider conclusion strategies you have learned and revise your conclusion to make it more effective. Turn in your original copy and the revision. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Assessment Evaluating the quality of the persuasion Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Persuasive Scoring Guide 1 2 3

4 Has no position. Shows little or no awareness of the audience. Has few or no persuasive words, phrases, or strategies to support or show commitment to the position. Has little or no variety in sentence length and structure. Includes arguments but does not support position. Has little or no consideration of opposing arguments. Has little or no elaboration, often only a list of arguments. Lacks an organizational pattern, or simply lists reasons. Uses few or no transitions to

connect position, arguments, or evidence. Has no recognizable opening. Has no recognizable conclusion Has an unclear or inconsistent position or may lose focus on that position. Shows some awareness of the audience. Has some use of persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support or show commitment to the position. Uses some variety in sentence length and structure. Includes arguments that somewhat support position. Has some consideration of the opposing

argument(s). Uses some elaboration to support arguments. Uses a basic organizational pattern or lacks sentence-to-sentence progression. Uses basic transitions to connect position, arguments, or evidence. Uses undeveloped or ineffective openings that are often list-like. Ends with undeveloped or ineffective conclusions such as a repeated list of reasons. Has an identifiable position and stays adequately focused on that position. Shows an adequate awareness of the audience.

Uses adequate persuasive words, phrases, and strategies to support or show commitment to the position. Uses sentences or phrases that are somewhat varied in length and structure to adequately persuade. Has arguments that adequately support position. Addresses the opposing argument(s) adequately and, if important, refutes. Uses adequate elaboration as needed to support arguments. Organizes adequately and progresses logically to persuade the reader. Uses transitions adequately to connect position, arguments, and evidence.

Begins with an adequate opening. Ends with an adequate persuasive conclusion. Has a clear position and stays purposefully focused on that position. Shows a consistent awareness of the audience. Selects effective persuasive words, phrases, and strategies that show commitment and urge the audience to support the position. Uses sentences or purposeful fragments of varied length and structure effectively to persuade. Has arguments that effectively support position. Addresses the opposing argument(s) consistently

and, if important, refutes. Uses purposeful elaboration as appropriate to support arguments. Organizes writing effectively and progresses logically to make the best case to support position. Uses purposeful transitions to show logical relationships between position, arguments, and evidence. Begins with a compelling opening that engages the audience, establishes context, and states or implies the position. Ends with an effective persuasive conclusion, such as a call for action. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

Assessment Read the paper. Refer to the scoring guide and identify where this paper best fits. Be able to point to elements of the paper that support your opinion. Discuss as a class. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved. Assessment

Score the paper for effective persuasion using the Persuasion Scoring Guide. Analyze what organizational structures and persuasive strategies have been used. Analyze the introduction and conclusion strategies that have been used. Copyright 2007 Washington Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. All rights reserved.

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