Final Exam Review - Hazleton Area High School

Final Exam Review B. Inherited some advantageous variations (remember survival of the fittest, those that are best suited to their environment survive and reproduce and those that are not die off) C. Genetic Drift (genetic drift is random changes in allele frequencies of small

populations; founder effect is when a small subgroup migrates and the allele frequencies change; bottleneck is when the allele frequency changes due to a sudden decrease in population) C. 50% D d

d Dd dd d Dd dd

D. Genetic variation (smaller the population the less variation in a population) A. Is a male (XY = male) C. The isolation of the two groups (the Grand Canyon would be a geographic barrier geographic isolation would occur)

C. Chromosome number (each organism within the same species has the same number of chromosomes; so all species of giraffes have the same number of chromsomes 62) D. 100% What is the probability that the offspring of a homozygous dominant individual and a homozygous recessive

individual will exhibit the dominant phenotype? D D d Dd Dd

d Dd Dd A. 25% B. 50% C. 75% D. 100%

D. RR, Rr, and rr only R r R RR Rr

r Rr rr C. Geographic isolation (different ponds means the land was a geographic barrier) B. Homologous structures (homologous structures different

mature forms but developed from the same embryonic tissue) The image above shows: A. vestigial structures B. homologous structures C. the fossil record D natural selection According to the theory of natural selection, which of the following is true?

A. Random mating is necessary for evolution to occur B Variation does not exist between members of the same species C Populations will change to better fir their environment D Individuals will adapt to their environment A. Random mating is necessary for evolution to occur (variation DOES exist; populations

DO change over time; individuals CANNOT adapt successfully survival of the fittest Random mating allows for these most fit variations to survive) D. Vestigial structures The image above illustrates which of the following? A. Artificial selection B Acquired characteristics

C Homologous structures D Vestigial structures (vestigial structures are structures that serve no useful function in that organism; obviously, fish do not need a femur and pelvis because they do not have legs) C. The butterflies mate with each other and produce fertile offspring

(members of the same species can breed and produce fertile offspring) D. All of these Which of the following are assumptions made with regards to the Theory of Evolution by natural selection? A. Organisms compete with each other to survive B Variations exist among organisms C Not all organisms that are born

survive to reproduce D All of these (Darwins Theory of Natural selection states that there are variations among organisms of the same species, not all organisms that are born will survive due to survival of the fittest and competition amongst each other) B. Male

If a person receives an X and a Y chromosome, that person is: A. Female B Male C Red-eyed D Mentally challenged (XY = male XX = female) A. The animals evolved from a common ancestor

(organisms with a common ancestor have similar structures; pharyngeal slits developed into gills or lungs Homologous structures similar embryonic form but different mature form) D. Natural selection (natural selection would have weeded out the smaller, slower, weaker horses and the stronger,

larger, faster ones would have survived to reproduce; survival of the fittest) B. Walking sticks with stripes will become more common (the walking sticks with stripes are better camouflaged in this region so they wont get preyed upon as easily as the other ones)

D. 100% In some species of moths, large wings are dominant over small wings, and yellow wings are dominant over white wings. What percentage of the offspring of the two moths with small white wings will have small white wings? A 0% B 25% C 75%

D 100% (small wings is recessive and white wings is recessive in order to show the recessive trait both alleles are recessive; since both moths show only the recessive trait all of their offspring must show the recessive trait- there is no dominant allele to overshadow the recessive one)

D. Allele frequency is remaining the same from one generation to the next (equilibrium = equal/balanced) B. YY, Yy, Yy, yy Y y Y

YY Yy y Yy yy a. There are more yellow-shelled snails than brown-shelled ones

b. Natural selection would have allowed the brown-shelled snails to be preyed upon more easily than the yellow-shelled ones so the yellow-shelled ones would have been able to survive to reproduce c. The snails would be preyed upon by birds. If there are fewer birds, all the snails stand a better chance of survival.

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