FB MECHANICS 5 MAN - IHSA Login

Football Mechanics for Five Officials Original Presentation by Timothy Kiefer & Octavio Herrera of IACAO. 1 Basic Philosophy and Principles ClickWord WordDocument Document for forfurther furtherinformation information Click Prerequisites for Good Officiating General Reminders Pregame Responsibilities Coin Toss Sounding Whistle Prerequisites for Good Officiating General Reminders Pregame Responsibilities Coin Toss Sounding Whistle 2 Basic Philosophy and Principles ClickWord WordDocument Document for forfurther furtherinformation information Click Stopping, Starting and Winding the Clock Shortening Periods Use of Penalty Marker Use of the Bean Bag

Clock Management Shortening Periods Use of Penalty Marker Use of the Bean Bag 3 Basic Philosophy and Principles ClickWord WordDocument Document for forfurther furtherinformation information Click Declaring Ball Ready for Play After a Score or Try-Prior to Free Kick Correcting Obvious Errors in Timing Coach Referee Conference Declaring Ready-for-Play After a Score or Try Correcting Errors in Timing Coach-Referee Conference 4 Basic Philosophy and Principles ClickWord WordDocument Document for forfurther furtherinformation

information Click Coach-Disqualification Procedure Controlling the Sideline and Team Box Controlling Team Personnel Altercations End-of-Game and Overtime Procedure Coach-Disqualifi ciation Procedure Controlling the Sideline Controlling Team Personnel End-of-Game 5 Kickoff Referees Position U LJ Referee G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10

G R G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Position near Rs goal line Linesmans side Count R Players Check other officials in position and signal ball ready for play after other officials are ready L BJ Hold bean bag in hand 6 Kickoff Referees Position Referee G 10

20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Deep Kicks, Be ready to rule on touchback or player momentum Start clock when kick is touched (other than first touching by K) G R Pick up runner and follow until released to covering official

7 Kickoff LJ Referee G Referees Position U 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G

If kick goes OOB determine if touched by R inbounds Kicks outside inbounds lines, move cautiously with play Observe actions behind play and clean up R G L BJ 8 Kickoff Umpires Position LJ Line Judge G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10

20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Position on Rs 20 yard line opposite Linesman Count R Players Ensure coaches, players, substitutes in proper location Hold hand in air to inform Referee ready Hold bean bag in hand 9 Kickoff LJ Line Judge U Line Judges Position G 10 20 30 40

50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G On kicks middle or your side, start Clock when kick is touched (other than first touching by K) Pick up runner and follow until released to Umpire 10 Kickoff LJ Line Judge G

U Line Judges Position 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Determine if kick goes OOB and flag if not touched by R Kicks opposite side, move cautiously with play Observe actions behind play and clean up

R G L BJ 11 Kickoff Linesmans Position Linesman G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20

10 G Position on Rs 30 yard line with line-togain equipment Monitor bench area Count R Players Hold hand in the air to inform Referee ready Hold bean bag in hand L 12 Kickoff Linesmans Position Linesman Kicks to your side, start clock when kick is touched by R (other than first touching by K) G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G

10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Pick up runner and follow until released to Back Judge Once you release runner, observe action behind play L BJ Maintain responsibility for your sideline 13 Kickoff U Linesman G LJ Linesmans Position 10 20

30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Determine if kick goes OOB and flag if not touched by R Kicks opposite side, move cautiously with play Observe actions behind play and clean up R G L BJ 14

Kickoff Umpires Position U Umpire G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Position on Rs Free Kick line, opposite

Linesman Ensure coaches, players, substitutes and others in proper location Count K players Hold arm in air to inform Referee ready Hold bean bag in hand 15 Kickoff Umpires Position U Umpire G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50

40 30 20 10 G Watch for free-kick line infractions Be Alert for first touching by K prior to Rs free-kick line and bean bag if necessary 16 Kickoff LJ Umpire Kick to your side Umpires Position U G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G

G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Move down sideline while watching for fouls and to area best to officiate depending on the kick Keep spacing with Line Judge Determine if kick goes OOB and flag if not touched by R On long runs, pick up responsibility for the runner from Line Judge and follow to goal line 17 Kickoff Umpire Kick Opposite Side G Umpires Position U LJ

10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Move cautiously toward play being ready to rule on your sideline if play reverses Observe action of player in vicinity of runner and watch for fouls away from the ball Help Back Judge with goal line on long runs

G R L BJ 18 Kickoff Back Judge Position on K freekick line Back Judges Position G 10 20 30 40 50 Hand ball to kicker and advise of Referees location. 40 30 20 10 G 30 20 10 G BJ

Inform K to wait for referees signal Count K Players G 10 20 30 40 50 40 Move to sideline with line-to-gain equipment and hold hand in the air to inform Referee ready Hold bean bag in 19 Kickoff Back Judges Position Back Judge G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10

G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Watch for free-kick line infractions Help U rule on first touching by K prior to Rs free-kick line and bean bag if necessary Watch initial blocks near Rs free-kick line and blocks on kicker / holder BJ Administer fouls prior to kickoff 20 Kickoff Back Judges Position Back Judge Kicks to your Side G 10

20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Move down the sideline to area to best officiate depending on kick Keep spacing with Linesman Determine if kick goes OOB and flag if R has not touched Pick up responsibility for runner from Linesman and follow to goal line

L BJ 21 Kickoff LJ Back Judge Kick Opposite side Back Judges Position U G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20

10 G Move cautiously toward play being ready to rule on your sideline if play reverses Observe action of player in vicinity of runner and watch for fouls away from the ball G R L BJ Assist Umpire with goal line on long runs 22 Scrimmage Kick Referees Position Referee G 10 20 Watch for fouls behind neutral zone and roughing / running into kicker 50 40 30

20 10 G 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G R Position No closer than 3-4 yards behind kicker (see notes), 5-7 yards wide. Be able to see ball and all backs 30 40 G 10 20 Be alert for blocked kicks and recovery 23 Scrimmage Kick Referees Position Referee G 10

20 After ball crosses neutral zone, observe line play and move down field slowly Be ready to pick up runner on long run and continue with him to goal line 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 50 40 30 20 10 G R G 10 20 30 40 24

Scrimmage Kick Referees Position LJ Referee G 10 20 If ball kicked out of bounds in flight, assist the covering official with spot In no foul, signal linesmen and lineto-gain equipment into position for next play 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G R U BJ G 10 20 30 40 50

40 30 20 10 G L 25 Scrimmage Kick Umpires Position Umpire G 10 20 30 40 50 Position 4 to 7 yards deep keeping snap in view 40 30 20 10 G 30 20 10 G

U Check numbering exceptions G 10 20 30 40 50 40 26 Scrimmage Kick Umpires Position LJ Umpire G 10 20 After snap, step toward neutral zone watching for possible roughing of snapper, then shift to blocking action Assist Referee with short or blocked kicks Once kick crosses neutral zone, pivot and observe blocks downfield and players away from ball 30 40

50 40 30 20 10 G R U BJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G L 27 Scrimmage Kick Linesmans Position Linesman G 10 20

30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Determine if kick crosses NZ Hold line-ofscrimmage until ball crosses then move slowly down field and keep spacing with Back Judge Grounded kicks out of bounds close to you, mark spot and observe action L 28

Scrimmage Kick Linesmans Position Linesman G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Help Referee with short or blocked kicks and note spot of recovery

On short kicks to your side, bean bag spot of first touching and end of kick Be ready for fair catch on short kicks to your side and blow whistle only after kick is secured L 29 Scrimmage Kick Linesmans Position LJ Linesman G 10 20 Only move line to gain equipment when sure no foul on play and signaled by Referee 50 40 30 20 10 G R Routine kick, move downfield cautiously observe action in

front of ball carrier Move with runner to your sideline and follow until goal line 30 40 U BJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G L 30 Scrimmage Kick LJ Line Judge Position on line of scrimmage Line Judges Position G 10 20 30 40

50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Move down field after snap Pick up responsibility for ball carrier from Back Judge on returns to your side 31 Scrimmage Kick Line Judge If out of bounds in flight go to inbounds spot or, move past where ball went out and walk forward

until Referee spots you On grounded kicks out of bounds, mark spot and observe action On return to Linesman side, move slowly behind play observe all action LJ Line Judges Position G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30

20 10 G 32 Scrimmage Kick Line Judges Position LJ Line Judge If K first to touch, mark spot of first touching with bean bag If fair catch is signaled on short kicks to your side, sound whistle after kick is complete (know when kick ends), and mark spot G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G R U

BJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G L Hold spot and communicate results to Referee 33 Scrimmage Kick Back Judges Position Back Judge G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 Position 7 to 10

yards to the side of deepest receiver and in position to cover sideline Carry bean bag in hand Be ready to rule on momentum inside 5 yard line 10 G BJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Observe initial action around receiver 34 Scrimmage Kick Back Judges Position Back Judge G 10 20

30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Drop Bean Bag to mark end of kick Maintain responsibility of ball carrier on returns up the middle and to your side until released to other official BJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G 35 Scrimmage Kick Back Judge

G 10 20 If K first to touch, mark spot of first touching with bean bag If fair catch is signaled on short kicks to your side, sound whistle after kick is complete (know when Kick ends), and mark spot Hold spot and communicate results to Referee 30 40 LJ Back Judges Position 50 40 30 20 10 G R U BJ G 10 20

30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G L 36 Field Goal (Free Kick) Referee Position behind Upright. Rule on Kick U All Positions LJ G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G G

10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10 G Umpire Position behind Upright. Rule on Kick R All Others Assume normal kickoff positions. L BJ All other mechanics same as Free Kick 37 Field Goal and Try Attempts Referees Position LJ Referee Position 1 yard behind and 2 to 3 yards to side of kicker facing holder BJ

Assist Line Judge / Linesman with side line if run develops 10 20 30 20 30 U Observe Kicker, Holder, and opposite side tackle Be ready for fumble or fake G L R G 10 38 Field Goal and Try Attempts Referees Position LJ Referee After ball is kicked, signal score or no score after receiving signal from Back Judge or Line Judge BJ G 10

20 30 20 30 U Rule on roughing the kicker / holder If try is blocked, sound whistle and give the no-score signal L R G 10 If field goal is blocked, ball remains live. If fake referee has goal line 39 Field Goal and Try Attempts Umpires Position LJ Umpire Position 5-7 yards deep keeping ball in view BJ Check numbering exceptions After snap, step toward neutral zone watching for roughing the snapper After players pass your position, pivot to

vacated side and assist with coverage G 10 20 30 20 30 U L R G 10 40 Field Goal and Try Attempts Linemans and Line Judges Position LJ L/LJ Position - Whoever is looking at the back of the holder line up on line of scrimmage or if either LJ/L consistently goes under, position accordingly. It is okay for R to look through the back of the holder. If run or pass move to the officiate the side line and goal line BJ G 10

20 30 20 30 U L R G 10 41 Field Goal and Try Attempts Linemans and Line Judges Position LJ L/LJ Rule on upright Signal score or noscore BJ G 10 20 30 20 30 U L R G 10

42 Back Judge Field Goal and Try Attempts Position under uprights EITHER with L or LJ Back Judges Position Rule on upright and cross bar Try: Sound whistle when ball crosses cross bar or when unsuccessful. Signal score or no-score Field Goal Attempt: Sound whistle when a grounded ball breaks the goal line or when a ball in flight crosses cross bar or when unsuccessful. If field goal does not cross goal line plane, the ball remains alive. LJ BJ G 10 20 30 20 30 U L R

G 10 43 Running / Passing Play Referees Position Referee As backfield 10-12 yards behind LOS on passing arm side Key tackle on opposite side LJ G 10 20 BJ U Declare ball ready-forplay R Count A players Check players set for one second prior to snap. Watch for snap infractions, illegal shifts, and false starts 30 G 10 20 30 L

44 Running / Passing Play Umpires Position Umpire 4 to 7 yards off ball as to not interfere with movement of linebackers. G 10 30 20 30 U Vary position to not block view of B players or allow A to use you as interference Count A Players 20 G 10 Check five players on line numbered 50-79 45 Running / Passing Play Umpires Position LJ Umpire Be ready to rule on snap infractions, false starts, disconcerting signals by defense and be aware of which B players are in free

blocking zone at the snap G 10 20 30 BJ U R G 10 20 30 L 46 Running / Passing Play Linesmans and Line Judges Position LJ Linesman & Line Judge G 10 20 30 G 10 20 30 Start on side line no closer than 9 yards to

the closest man to your side straddling line-of-scrimmage (never inside the numbers). Check down number on box and signal down L 47 Running / Passing Play Linesman & Line Judge Use extended arm signal to indicate closest A player is off the LOS Linesmans and Line Judges Position LJ G 10 20 30 G 10 20 30 Check to see if all backs, flankers, split ends in legal position and check eligibility If initial motion is away from you, determine if player motion is legal at the snap L

48 Running / Passing Play Linesmans and Line Judges Position LJ Linesman & Line Judge Check for seven A players on the line-ofscrimmage G 10 20 30 BJ U Help in determining false start, encroachment, interference with snap Count B players and be alert for illegal substitutes R G 10 20 30 L 49 Running / Passing Play Back Judges Position LJ Back Judge 15 to 20 yards off the ball AND always deeper than deepest

back G 10 Count B players 30 BJ U Responsible for 25 second count Provide a visible count of the last 5 seconds when 25 second field clock is not utilized 20 R G 10 20 30 L 50 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Balanced Formation G 10 20 30 10

20 30 Strong side declared to Line Judges side BJ Back Judge Key: Widest eligible receiver on strong side Linesman Key: End on your side G Line Judge Key: First back out your side L 51 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Unbalanced Formation G 10 20 30 10 20 30 Strength declared to Linesmans side BJ Back Judge Key: Widest eligible receiver on

strong side Linesman Key: Next widest eligible receiver on your side Line Judge Key: End your side G L 52 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Unbalanced Formation G 10 20 30 10 20 30 Strength declared to Line Judges side BJ Back Judge Key: Widest eligible receiver on strong side Linesman Key: End on your side Line Judge Key: Next widest eligible receiver on your side (both formations) G

L 53 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Twins Formation G Back Judge Key: Widest receiver on strong side (Line Judges side) 10 20 30 10 20 30 BJ Line Judge Key: Next widest eligible receiver on your side Linesman Key: Eligible Receivers on your side G L 54 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Trips Formation

G Back Judge Key: Two outside receivers on strong side 10 20 30 10 20 30 BJ Linesman Key: End your side Line Judge Key: Inside receiver your side Note: Reverse coverage for trips formations to Linesman side G L 55 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles Motion Strong side initially declared to Linesmans side LJ G Motion to Line Judge changes strength to

Line Judges side Back Judge Key: Change to widest eligible receiver on Line Judge side Linesman Key: Change to End on your side Line Judge Key remains the same (next widest eligible receiver) 10 20 30 10 20 30 BJ G L 56 Keys and Priorities Strength determined by number of eligible receivers outside tackles LJ Motion Strong side initially declared to Line Judges side G Motion to Line Judge side does not change strength 10 20

30 10 20 30 BJ Strength and coverages remains the same G L 57 Running Play Referee Referee Key opposite guard / tackle G 10 20 30 R Responsible for ball carrier and action around him to the neutral zone G 10 20 30 58 Running Play

Referee Referee Move behind play toward side of field where play advances and cover runner until reaching neutral zone or if down near line-ofscrimmage Watch action behind ball and away from runner, action on quarterback, and backward or forward passes. G 10 20 30 R G 10 20 30 59 Running Play Referee LJ Referee When ball is dead, move to location and signal next down G 10 20

30 R U BJ Help relay ball and assist umpire with spot If first down, stop clock and signal Make sure all officials ready to go before signal ball ready for play G 10 20 30 L 60 Running Play Umpire Umpire Read point of attack LJ Watch line play for illegal action around point of attack and in free blocking zone G After play spot ball 20 30 R

Move accordingly depending on play working inside out Be alert for fumbles beyond neutral zone and help determine who gains possession 10 U BJ G 10 20 30 L 61 Running Play Linesman Linesman Action toward you Observe actions of linemen your side and blockers in front of ball carrier Pick up responsibility of ball carrier, mark forward progress and stop clock if out of bounds Stop clock if ball carrier crosses line to gain G 10 20 30

G 10 20 30 L 62 Running Play Linesman LJ Linesman Action away from you G 10 20 30 R Move cautiously onto field. Be ready for reverse action U BJ Observe action behind play Be ready to help with forward progress spot G 10 20 30

L 63 Running Play Line Judge Line Judge LJ Action toward you Observe actions of linemen your side and blockers in front of ball carrier Pick up responsibility of ball carrier, mark forward progress and stop clock if out of bounds G 10 20 30 G 10 20 30 Stop clock if ball carrier crosses line to gain 64 Running Play Line Judge LJ Line Judge Action away from you

G Move cautiously onto field. Be ready for reverse action 10 20 30 R U BJ Observe action behind play Be ready to help with forward progress G 10 20 30 L 65 Running Play Backjudge Back Judge LJ Work inside out Move to maintain triangle coverage with Umpire, Linesman or Line Judge on runs to side zones Trail play to sideline and move into dead ball area assisting covering official

Goal line responsibility on long runs G 10 20 30 R U BJ G 10 20 30 L 66 Passing Plays Referee Referee Key opposite guard / tackle G 10 20 30 R G 10 20

30 Watch blocking Remain wider and deeper than passer After pass released, verbally alert defenders and observe action on passer not ball Determine pass forward or backward 67 Passing Plays Referee LJ Referee Sole responsibility for intentional grounding; however, can get assistance from covering official G 10 20 R 30 20 30 U BJ Determine if passer crosses neutral zone Continue to observe action behind neutral zone before leaving G

10 L 68 Passing Plays Umpire Umpire Watch for Illegal contact in free blocking zone G 10 Move towards line-ofscrimmage (LOS) 20 30 20 30 U Observe action of players in and just behind neutral zone Rule on ineligible illegally downfield Assist Referee in determining if forward pass released beyond neutral zone G 10 69 Passing Plays Umpire LJ

Umpire Know if ball tipped at line-of-scrimmage (if so give tipped signal) G 10 20 R 30 20 30 U Assist on determining catch or no catch on short passes BJ G 10 L 70 Passing Plays Linesman and Line Judge Linesman & Line Judge Watch initial action off line for defensive holding LJ G 10 20

30 G 10 20 30 Be ready to rule on direction of quick forward pass Move downfield cautiously (5-7 yards) on passes to your side Be ready to adjust back for run Be ready to rule on pass incomplete / complete and interference L 71 Passing Plays Linesman & Line Judge Linesman and Line Judge Observe action until ball is dead: If first down is obtained, stop clock If inside defensive 5 yard line, be ready to rule on momentum If incomplete pass in your area, sound whistle and signal If ball is intercepted and when ball becomes dead, stop clock and signal first down Be alert for illegal passes

LJ G 10 20 R 30 U BJ G 10 20 30 L Rule on touching or catching by ineligibles 72 Passing Plays Back Judge Back Judge Retreat to be in position behind deepest receiver LJ G Responsible for deep receivers 10 20 R 30

20 30 U BJ Be ready to rule on complete / incomplete pass and interference Move to goal line or end line if either is threatened G 10 L 73 Goal-Line Plays (Inside 10 yards) Referee Referee LJ Same Coverage as scrimmage plays Do not give touchdown signal from behind runner unless obvious. G 10 20 30 20 30 R

U BJ Give touchdown signal if touchdown has been signaled and no foul has occurred G 10 L 74 Goal-Line Plays (Inside 10 yards) Umpire Umpire LJ Position near goal line and cover same as scrimmage play Watch runner for moving ball forward after it is declared dead near goal line G 10 20 30 20 30 R U BJ G 10

L 75 Goal-Line Plays (Inside 10 yards) Linesman and Line Judge Linesman & Line Judge LJ Position same as scrimmage play On snap between 10 and 5 yard line, release slowly downfield and stay ahead of runner G 10 20 30 20 30 R U BJ On snap inside 5 yard line, release to goal line and work back to ball ONLY signal Touchdown if you see ball cross goal line G 10 L Do NOT mirror signal 76

Goal-Line Plays (Inside 10 yards) Back Judge Back Judge LJ End line responsibility G Do NOT mirror signal 10 20 30 20 30 R U BJ G 10 L 77 Measurements Line Judge LJ Align Linesman up with line and ball Back Judge G 10 20

30 20 30 Hold Ball BJ Linesman U Walk chains out, place clip on line and hold Umpire After Linesman ready, pull chain G 10 R L Referee Determine if ball across line-to-gain 78 Penalty Administration Flag thrown for Intentional Grounding Referee LJ Referee Stop Clock Obtain penalty information from official G

After penalty has been enforced, provide final signal to press box side. G 20 R 30 20 30 U BJ Give Preliminary Signal Provide options to captain of offended team 10 10 L 79 Penalty Administration Flag thrown for Intentional Grounding Back Judge LJ Back Judge Help Obtain Ball Assist in holding spot of foul or recovering penalty flag G 10

R 30 20 30 U BJ G 20 10 L 80 Penalty Administration Flag thrown for Intentional Grounding Line Judge LJ Line Judge Hold enforcement spot G 10 R 30 20 30 U BJ G 20 10

L 81 Penalty Administration Flag thrown for Intentional Grounding Linesman LJ Linesman Proceed to succeeding spot G 10 R 30 20 30 U BJ G 20 10 L 82 Penalty Administration Flag thrown for Intentional Grounding Umpire LJ Umpire Secure Ball Enforce Penalty

G Avoid stepping off distance between yard lines, except to the first and final yard 10 U BJ G 20 10 R 30 U 20 30 L 83 Time-Out Procedure Referee G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 20 10

G 20 10 G Sound Whistle and signal time-out Verify number of time-outs remaining for each team Verify number of next down R G 10 20 30 40 50 40 30 When notified that 45 sec have expired, signal Linesman and Line Judge to give 15 second warning Declare ball ready for play 84 Time-Out Procedure Umpire Maintain position over ball Observe Team A until referee is ready to start play

G 10 20 50 40 30 20 10 G 20 10 G LJ Linesman and Line Judge Position between ball and your sideline 30 40 BJ U R G 10 20 30 40 L 50 40

30 Back Judge Time 60 second interval; notify referee at 45 seconds and again at 60 seconds 85

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