L/O To add to our understanding of marriage and divorce An alternative view of marriage http://www.thesociologicalcinema. com/videos/matrimony 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 2 Sign of the times? Billboard poster in the USA from a law firm. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 3 Who Gets Divorced? Social Social class: class: the the lower lower the the social social class class of of the the husband, husband, the the more more likely likely of of divorcing divorcing (n.b. (n.b. divorce divorce is is still still common common in in all all social
social classes). classes). Unemployment, Unemployment, dependency dependency on on benefits benefits and and low low income income are are all all linked linked to to high high divorce divorce rates. rates. Age: Age: couples couples who who marry marry young young are are more more likely likely to to get get divorced divorced (n.b. (n.b. divorce divorce is is common common in in all all age age groups) groups) 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 4 Who Gets Divorced (continued)
Second Second marriages marriages are are more more likely likely to to end end in in divorce divorce than than first first marriages. marriages. Mixed-class, Mixed-class, ethnicity ethnicity or or religion religion can can cause cause marital marital problems. problems. Couples Couples may may have have less less in in common common and and experience experience aa lack lack of of acceptance acceptance from from their their families. families. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 5
Nicky Hart Nicky Nicky Hart Hart (1976) (1976) suggests suggests that that there there are are three three key key factors factors to to consider consider in in an an analysis analysis of of increasing increasing divorce divorce rates: rates: 1. 1. Opportunities Opportunities to to escape escape marriage. marriage. 2. 2. Opportunities Opportunities for for increased increased conflict conflict and and stress. stress. 3. 3. Changing Changing values values concerning concerning marriage. marriage. She She argues argues divorce
divorce needs needs to to be be understood understood in in terms terms of of both both macro-factors macro-factors (society-influenced) (society-influenced) and and micromicrofactors factors (individual (individual factors). factors). 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 6 Divorce Law Time Line Women received equality with men and began getting custody of children. 185 7 1969 1937 192 3 Matrimonial Causes Act Divorce available for the first time. But not for women or the working class. 11/02/20
Legal Aid and Advice Act - Legal Aid became available for divorces. Matrimonial and Family Proceedings Act Easier to divorce in early stages of marriage. 1949 Law extended grounds for divorce: adultery, cruelty and desertion. 1984 199 1 Divorce after one year of separatio n. 199 6 Divorce Reform Legal to Act - No Fault re-marry divorce after 2 in years churches. separation if mutually agreed. 5 years if only one person agreed. Copyright Stacey Osborne, used with permission
Families and Culture Chapter 8 7 1969 Divorce Reform Act The The Divorce Divorce Reform Reform Act Act (1971) (1971) introduced introduced the the no-fault no-fault divorce. divorce. Couples Couples can can quickly quickly get get divorced divorced on on grounds grounds that that their their marriage marriage has has irretrievably irretrievably broken broken down. down. Evidence Evidence for for this this was was living living apart apart for for 22 years years (or (or 55 years years ifif one one partner
partner objected). objected). Divorce Divorce now now became became aa rubber rubber stamp stamp process. process. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 8 Increased Marital Stress and Conflict More More women women are are dissatisfied dissatisfied with with the the unfair unfair division division of of labour labour inside inside the the family. family. Where Where both both partners partners work, work, who who acts acts as as aa stabiliser stabiliser of of adult adult personalities personalities (Talcott
(Talcott Parsons) Parsons) now? now? Financial Financial problems, problems, increasing increasing debt, debt, pressures pressures to to have have aa high high material material living living standard standard can can all all undermine undermine relationships. relationships. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 9 Over-high Expectations? Functionalists Functionalists like like Ronald Ronald Fletcher Fletcher argue argue that that people people expect expect more more out out of of marriage marriage and and family family life life than than they
they used used to. to. Couples Couples are are no no longer longer prepared prepared to to be be part part of of empty-shell empty-shell marriages. marriages. Therefore Therefore divorce divorce is is more more common. common. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 10 William Goode William William Goode Goode argues argues that that marriage marriage has has become become an an occurrence occurrence for for more more emotional emotional reasons. reasons.
In In the the past, past, people people married married for for practical practical reasons, reasons, and and the the fact fact that that partners partners did did not not love love each each other other wasn't wasn't aa problem. problem. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 11 Anthony Giddens Anthony Anthony Giddens Giddens (1992) (1992) sees sees shift shift towards towards what what he he calls calls confluent confluent love(close love(close and and emotion). emotion).
This This is is in in marked marked contrast contrast to to feelings feelings of of duty duty and and obligation obligation as as reflected reflected in in traditional traditional marriage marriage vows vows '' "For "For better better for for worse, worse, for for richer richer for for poorer,...as poorer,...as long long as as we we both both shall shall live". live". 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 12 Stephanie Coontz (2005) Marriage, A History: How Love Conquered Marriage .- How does the rigidity of marriage continue to structure behaviour? - Think about how increased emotional satisfaction in marriage has come at the expense of institutional stability. - What are the societal costs and benefits of such an arrangement?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwtb7jz8G4k https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gwtb7jz8G4k Modernism and Individualism Colin Colin Gibson Gibson (1994) (1994) argues argues modernism modernism with with its its emphasis emphasis on on individual individual achievement achievement raises raises expectations expectations of of personal personal satisfaction. satisfaction. Allan Allan and and Crow Crow (2001) (2001) argue argue that that marriage marriage is is more more aa relationship relationship than than an an agreement. agreement. Couples Couples look look for for love, love, satisfaction, satisfaction, and and commitment
commitment and and recognise recognise marriage marriage doesn't doesn't have have to to be be aa relationship relationship that that lasts lasts forever. forever. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 14 Changes in Womens Position Three-quarters Three-quarters of of divorce divorce applications applications come come from from women. women. Women Women expect expect more more out out of of aa marriage marriage than than men men and and have have less less to to gain gain from from empty-shell empty-shell
marriages. marriages. Allan Allan and and Crow Crow say say that that opportunities opportunities for for women women have have improved improved in in the the past past 50 50 years, years, e.g. e.g. they they are are economically economically more more independent. independent. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 15 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 16 Women and Divorce Feminists Feminists say say that that the the increase increase in in the
the divorce divorce rate rate is is aa reflection reflection of of what what is is wrong wrong with with the the traditional traditional patriarchal patriarchal marriage. marriage. Divorced Divorced men men are are more more likely likely to to re-marry re-marry than than divorced divorced women. women. According According to to Diana Diana Gittins Gittins (1993) (1993) this this is is because because women women are are disillusioned disillusioned with with marriage. marriage. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 17
Women and the Labour Market Nicky Nicky Hart Hart (1976) (1976) says says that that the the rise rise in in the the working working women women has has put put more more strain strain on on marriages. marriages. The The increase increase in in the the divorce divorce rate rate suggests suggests that that women women want want aa better better bargain bargain out out of of marriage. marriage. Employment Employment (and (and welfare) welfare) offers offers women women opportunities opportunities to
to live live independently independently of of men. men. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 18 Divorce and Children New New Right Right see see divorce divorce as as being being detrimental detrimental to to children children and and parents parents should should stay stay together. together. Rodgers Rodgers and and Pryor Pryor (1998) (1998) argue argue children children of of divorced divorced or or separated separated parents parents experience experience more more poverty, poverty, poor poor housing, housing,
behavioural behavioural problems, problems, teenage teenage pregnancy, pregnancy, and and educational educational underachievement. underachievement. IfIf children children have have no no contact contact with with one one parent, parent, itit is is harder harder to to cope cope and and moving moving in in with with aa step-family step-family can can cause cause problems. problems. Compare content to slide 2111/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 19 Divorce and Society New New Right Right see see high high divorce divorce rates rates resulting resulting in
in female-headed female-headed one one parent parent families families as as aa threat threat to to society. society. Boys, Boys, in in particular, particular, grow grow up up without without disciplinary disciplinary figure figure and and aa role role model. model. Patricia Patricia Morgan Morgan (1999) (1999) sees sees aa direct direct link link between between the the divorce divorce rates rates and and an an increase increase in in the the crime crime rates. rates. Feminists Feminists challenge challenge these these ideas ideas as as aa backlash
backlash arguing arguing itit is is the the quality quality not not quantity quantity of of parenting parenting that that matters. matters. 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 20 Next lesson Examine the reasons for changes in the divorce rate since 1969 (May 2011 24 marks this will be 20) 11/02/20 Families and Culture Chapter 8 21
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