Measurement of the fragmentation of Carbon ions with nuclear emulsions for medical applications Adele LAURIA On the behalf of Naples emulsion group University of Naples Federico II, Italy INFN, Naples Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector
Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up Preliminary results Conclusion Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement The Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up Preliminary results Conclusion Hadrontherapy motivation For hadrons (compared to X and ):
Energy deposited at the end of ionization range For 12C (compared to protons): Reduced lateral and longitudinal diffusion; Higher therapeutic effectiveness; Tissue thickness tunable by changing the nuclei energy; Less energy deposited to healthy neighboring tissues Hadrontherapy Facilities in Europe: http://enlight.web.cern.ch/facilities
Patient Statistics (for facilities in operation at the end of 2012): http://enlight.web.cern.ch Fragmentation of 12C Nuclear fragments are generated during the interaction inside the tissue Fragments have higher range and different direction with respect to primary ions Precise knowledge of fragments is necessary to predict the detailed irradiation of the neighboring tissues and, thereby, optimization of the therapy with higher effectiveness What we need to know Kind of fragments Which energy?
Which angle? Simulation: A. Mairani PhD Thesis, 2007, Nuovo Cimento C, 31, 2008 C (400 MeV/n) on water Bragg-Peak 12 Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up
Preliminary results Conclusion Carbon exposure at HIMAC* (NIRS**- Chiba(Japan)) Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) *Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator **National Institute of Radiological Sciences The structure of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber ECC structure: OPERA type: alternate passive and sensitive material High resolution tracking device: nuclear emulsion (300 m thick) Passive material: lexan plates 1 mm thick 73 consecutive cells: 219 alternate nuclear and lexan layers
Lexan: =1.15 g/cm3 and electron density=3.61023/cm3 (water: 3.31023/cm3) Elementary cells C 12 300 mm EMULSION LAYER 1000 mm LEXAN LAYER The cell structure of the Emulsion Cloud Chamber
R0 R1 C R2 12 300 mm R0: o o o
R1: o o o R2: o o LEXAN LEXAN LEXAN Emulsion were differently treated after the
1 mm exposure and before the chemical treatment according to their position in the elementary cell (0, 1, 2) Not refreshed Developed soon after the exposure Sensitive to m.i.p. 3 day refreshing at 98% relative humidity at 30C Insensitive to m.i.p. Sensitive to protons 3 day refreshing at 98% relative humidity at 38C Sensitive to He Nuclear emulsion
Charged particle detector First kind of detector for ionizing radiation AgBr crystal (0.2 m) is the elementary detection cell m) is the elementary detection cell The particle tracking is registered from the AgBr grains along its path Microscope image 30-40 grains/100 mm per MIP 50 mm OPERA emulsions OPERA industrial emulsions from FujiFilm The AgBr density in the OPERA emulsions is higher in respect to the
commercial films Special R&D for OPERA: the double pouring procedure Emulsion Layer (43 microns) Before refreshing >30 tracks/mm^2 After refreshing ~1 tracks/mm^2 Plastic Base (205 microns) 150 microns Emulsions are continuously sensitive detector ALL charged particle: cosmic
rays, natural radioactivity etc recorded as a latent images. They can be partially erased by a refreshing procedure applied just before the detector assembling. Emulsion scanning system Z stage (Micos) 0.05 m no minal precision Illumination system, objective (oil 50 NA0.85) and optical tube (Nikon) CMOS camera
12801024 pixel 256 gray levels 376 frames/sec (Mikrotron MC1310) Emulsion Plate OPERA expertise in scanning 3d track reconstruction Scanning speed: 20 cm2/h
Spatial resolution: ~0.3 m Angular resolution: ~2 mrad Detection efficiency of the tracks: ~95% XY stage (Micos) 0.1 m no minal precision 16 Principle of scanning emulsion 16 images taken through 44-micron emulsion layer Automatic scanning system Micro-track reconstruction in one emulsion layer by combining
clusters belonging to images at different levels. Micro-tacks are connected across the plastic base to form a base-tracks. Results Combining the information on consecutive films to get rid of the saturation effect R0 vs R1 and R1 vs R2 scatter plot He H Journal of Instrumentation 2 (2007) P06004 Charge identification 4 cm thick
chamber 2 cm thick chamber Z=4 Z=3 Z=2 6 cm thick chamber 8 cm thick chamber Z=6 Z=5
Z=4 Z=3 Z=2 Charge separation Journal of Instrumentation 2 (2007) P06004 Scattering angle of emitted particles Hydrogen Helium Lithium
Cross-section measurement A volume of about 24 cm3 analyzed Average energy of the Carbon beam: 315 MeV/n Counting the events with Lithium (z = 3), Beryllium (z = 2) and Boron (z = 1) as the heaviest particle in the final state Black points: Phys.Rev.C75 (2007) 054606 Be production Cross Section 8 8Be He + He (10-16 s) Q value 90 keV small opening angle Opening angle between pairs of reconstructed Helium tracks
One event C p He He Peak at 20mrad ( 8 )=( 190 40 ) mbarn p Outline
Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up Preliminary results Conclusion FIRST experiment FIRST: Fragmentation of Ions Relevants for Space and Therapy Aim: Production yelds of Z=0, 1, 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 fragments Measurement of cross section wrt angle and energy, with large angular acceptance A collaboration among:
INFN: Cagliari, LNF, LNS, Milano, Napoli, Roma3,Torino; DSM/IRFU/SPhN CEA Saclay, IN2P3 Caen, Strasbourg, Lyon; GSI: Therapeutical beam of 12C @ 200-400 MeV/n available Existing setup designed for higher E and Z fragments: Dipole magnet, Large Volume TPC, TOF Wall, low angle Neutron detector. ESA, CERN What do we expect from MC (FLUKA)? The Z>2 produced fragments approximately have the same velocity of the 12C beam projectiles and are collimated in the forward direction The protons are the most abundant fragments with a wide angular distribution and a kinetic energy spectrum up to 1 Gev/ n
The Z=2 fragment are emitted within 20of angular aperture Kinetic energy (MeV/nucl) Emission angle (deg) FIRST set up The measurements were performed at the GSI facilities, where a therapeutical beam of 12C @ 200-400 MeV/n is available LAND Fragments Incident Beam
VETO COUNTER Identifies particles coming from primary beam MUSIC Energy particles Slope particles TIME OF FLY WALL Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector
Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up Preliminary results Conclusion The FIRST set-up ECC ECC1 ECC2 10.2cm ECC 12.5cm
FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy Journal of Physics: Conference Series 420 (2013) 012061 doi:10.1088/1742-6596/420/1/012061 Beam exposure of ECC 12C beam with 400 MeV/n Carbon target (8 mm thick) Two ECC were collocated inside the detector FIRST Dedicated study on large angle track detection beam 2 a 16.5 cm 1
b 0.5 cm ECC2 2 2 38 ECC1 38 1 57 ECC strucutre ECC structure: Not homogeneous structure 6 consecutive emulsion films 56 nuclear emulsion layers (300 m) interleaved with 56 lead plates (1 mm) film 62
10.2cm 12.5cm 6 consecutive emulsions film 57 film 56 1 mm lead layer ECC 300 m nuclear emulsion film 2
film 1 Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement The Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up Preliminary results Conclusion ECC 2: Tracks angular distribution Signal and cosmic rays 20 emulsions were scanned (6 consecutive emulsions and 14
emulsions interleaved with lead) Data were scanned processed up to tg q 2 Signal cut: -0.9 tg x -0.1 -0.3 tg y 0.28) Signal is effectively measured at: 3q 40 (for ECC2) 40q 60 (for ECC1) as it was expected from the exposition geometry and
Signal and cosmic ray range distribution Tracks selected: Signal Cosmic rays preliminary results -0.9 tg x -0.1
-0.3 tg y 0.28 number of segments 2 Reconstruction efficiency Signal Cosmic rays Efficiency vs tracks slope Angular distribution of only signal
corrected by efficiency CR/(S+CR)=24.4% preliminary results Kinematical measurements 1. Momentum measurement by multiple coulomb scattering (MCS) From the slope measurements along the particle track of the same particle obtained from the ECC it is possible to calculate the particle impulse in the range: 200 MeV/c 2 GeV/c The algorithm was used for OPERA experiment and is based on:
p (MeV/c) = 13.6 q (mrad) x X0 Momentum measurement by the angular method in the Emulsion Cloud Chamber, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 512 (2003) 539545 Kinematical measurements 1.Momentum measurement by MCS Tracks behind the first 6
emulsions Tracks with at least 3 segments passing through 11 % of the total tracks of the sample preliminary results Kinematical measurements 2. Momentum measurement by range Tracks for which it is not possible the measurement by the MCS method Tracks stopped in the first 6
emulsions Tracks not stopped inside the considered volume (20 layers) 82 % of the total tracks of the sample preliminary results Outline Hadrontherapy motivation The 12C fragmentation measurement with the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) detector The FIRST detector Measurements at GSI in the FIRST set-up
Preliminary results Conclusion Conclusions Emulsion Cloud Chamber technique used to study the fragmentation of Carbon ions 1. Homogeneous ECC used as target and detector 2. Not Homogeneous ECC used as detector From these studies: Discrimination of produced fragments in Z Charge-changing cross-section measured Moment measurement with MCS algorithm and range method Backup slides
40 Interaction length of secondary ions H 14.0 1.2mm He 19.3 2.3mm Reconstruction efficiency Tracks selected: angle selection
number of segments 2 Number of plates 6 Signal -0.9 tg x -0.1 -0.3 tg y 0.28 Cosmic rays 0.1 tg x 0.9 -0.3 tg 0.28)
Data (images) processing and motion control flow in the ESS DAQ cycle (185 ms) Tomographic sequences Z axis moving, 2D images spanning emulsion thickness 280365mm 2 Next field of view, Z at top, new cycle
Process/save data Move XYZ to next view Camera Image Processor board (Matrox Odyssey) 2D Images (peak 452 MB/s, avg. 97 MB/s) Motors (VEXTA Nanostep) Binarized
2D Images Motion Controller (National Instruments FlexMotion) XYZ Motion Power Commands Functional blocks Host PC (Dual Pentium Workstation) Running WinXP
3D microtracks 45 Cosmic-ray angular distribution Cosmic-rays taken with the films inside the brick in the same geometrical configuration s for the beam at GSI, with the brick rotated by 90 degrees to minimize the flux Films transported from Gran Sasso to CERN Brick assembled at CERN
Cosmic-ray integrated during the transportation of the brick from CERN to GSI and from GSI to Gran Sasso Brick disassembled and film developed at Gran Sasso 46
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