Everything is an Argument - Humble Independent School District
Grab an Everythings an Argument book off the shelf by the flags. INTRO TO RHETORIC Everything is an Argument You are bombarded with them all the time! The average American
sees over 3000 advertiseme nts per day! In addition to advertising, we see argument in emails, texts,
conversation s in the hallway, television Being able to break down and analyze an argument is an important skill. It prevents you from being taken advantage of, lied to, tricked, manipulated, Argument is Everywhere!
etc. Being able to analyze someone elses argument also helps you to create your own persuasive argument, which is a very handy Argument is Everywhere! skill! Rhetoric and Rhetorical Analysis
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Western rhetoric originated in ancient Greece as a discipline to prepare citizens to argue in court. Rhetorical analysis is an examination of how well the components of an argument work together to persuade or move an audience. Rhetorical (adj): hypothetical Why do we use rhetorical questions?
Purposes of argument Invitational argument Examples? Purposes of argument Rogerian argument: approaches audiences in nonthreatening ways. See p. 7 Why is this Rogerian? How does this appeal to audiences?
Who is the audience? Purposes of argument Arguments to convince seek to inspire a conviction within the audience. Purposes of argument Arguments to persuade seek to cause an action within the audience. P. 9
How does the last sentence change the argument? Why? Purposes of argument To inform (expository) p. 10 Purposes of argument To explore
p. 11 Purposes of argument To make decisions Purposes of argument To meditate or pray Occasions for Argument Arguments about the past: (forensic
arguments) common in business, government, and academia. They rely on evidence/testimony to recreate what is known about past events and offer an analysis of cause and effect. Arguments about the future: (deliberative arguments) often establish policies for the future, but can be speculative in nature, advanced through reasonable guesses and projections. Arguments about the present: (ceremonial arguments) usually address contemporary values
or widely held beliefs and assumptions that are often debated (inaugural addresses, sermons, eulogies, graduation speeches, etc). Kinds of Argument Another way to categorize arguments is to look at the issues they address. This system, developed in ancient Greece and Rome, is called stasis theory. The questions were posed in sequence because each depended
on the question preceding it. Did something happen? What is its nature? What is its quality or cause? What actions should be taken? **Each questions explores a different aspect and uses different evidence/techniques to reach conclusions. Kinds of Argument
Arguments of Fact Involves a statement that can be proved or disproved with specific evidence. To settle the matter, writers and readers need to ask questions about the facts. Where did the facts come from? Are they reliable? Is there a problem with the facts?
Kinds of Arguments Arguments of Definition Is playing video games a sport? This argument depends on what one considers a sport, and whether or not the definition of sport is universal or fluid. Is same-sex marriage
unconstitutional? What are we trying to define here? Kinds of Arguments Arguments of Evaluation and Proposal Arguments of Evaluation: Present criteria and then measure individual people, ideas, or things against those standards. Arguments of Proposal: present the problem in such a way that the
reader/audience responds by saying what can we do? Rhetorical Strategies: Pathos Pathos: An appeal to emotions or feelings including fear, humor, romance, compassion, pity, etc (Think SPCA / Save the Children
videos) p. 38-39 Rhetorical Strategies: Ethos Ethos: An appeal based on the character of the speaker. This appeal is based on whether or not the audience perceives the speaker as someone who
is morally competent, trustworthy, and knowledgeable on the subject about which s/he is speaking. (Think celebrity endorsers, doctor testimonials, etc.) p. 49-50 Rhetorical Strategies: Logos Logos: An appeal to logic or rational
reasoning. If you can explain real-life cause and effect and if/then situations, and make reasonable comparisons using facts and figures that can be verified, then you are using logos. Logos also pertains to logical reason such as syllogism and inductive reasoning Other Rhetorical Strategies
Repetition: Speakers repeat things they want the audience to remember (I have a dream) Allusion: A reference to commonly known literature pieces, historical events, pop culture, etc. This gives the speaker credibility. Diction: Strong and deliberate word choice. The words a speaker uses are incredibly important to convey his or her intended message. Connotation: The emotion behind a word. Ex: retarded
versus a person with a disability or skinny versus scrawny Other devices that speakers commonly use are similes and metaphors, imagery examples, personification, etc.
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