Ethics: The Study of Right and Wrong

Ethics: The Study of Right and Wrong The Ancients (5th-4th Centuries BC) Socrates, Plato, Aristotle The Moderns (17th-19th Centuries) Descartes, Hume, Kant Contemporary Schools(20th Century) Positivism, Existentialism, Pragmatism Previous

Next Lowell Kleiman Descriptive Ethics: The Study of Actual Codes of Conduct History Cross-Cultural Ethnic Previous Studies Next Anthropology Lowell Kleiman

Normative Ethics: The Study of the Universally Valid Code of Conduct Ethnocentrism There is a Universally Valid Code. We have it. The Ethnocentric Fallacy Error of Judging Others By Standard Not Their Own Mathematics as a Normative Model Mathnocentrism The Mathnocentric Fallacy? Moral Skepticism Metaphysical Certainty Common Sense Fallibility Previous Next Ethical Theory

Religious Authoritarianism It is right if sanctioned by deity. Is something right because God says so, or does God say so because it is right? Individualism Egotism If it suits me, it is right. Egoism If it suits the agent, it is right. The Prisoners Dilemma Morality as a set of agreements that optimize, not maximize, self-interest. Previous

Next Ethical Theory (Cont.) Utilitarianism Act It is right if it leads to more good than harm. Rule It is right if it leads to more good than harm as a rule. Traditional Moralism Established Morality It is right if it is the custom. Previous

Next Ethical Theory (Cont.) Traditional Moralism (Cont.) The Categorical Imperative If it is right, it is universalizable; It treats others as an end-in-themselves, not just as a means to an end; It is motivated by a sense of duty defined by the moral law. Pragmatism If, at the end of inquiry, we say it is right, it is right. From moral skepticism to common sense fallibilism as practical necessity. Previous

Next Applied Ethics Biomedical Business Legal Science Virtual Previous (Computer) Ethics Next Lowell Kleiman MetaEthics: The Study of the Foundations of Normative Ethics

Subjectivism Morality as in the eye of the beholder. Objectivism Morality as a matter of fact. Positivism Morality as venting. Previous Next

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