ESSENCE AND MORAL IDEAL OF NURSING - WordPress.com

ESSENCE AND MORAL IDEAL OF NURSING Jaime R. Soriano.RN.RM.MSN.RT. Meaning of Caring Watson (1985, 2005) defines caring as a science and her operational definition of caring science as an evolving philosophical ethical-epistemic field of study that is grounded in the discipline of nursing and informed by related fields (Watson, 2005) Major assumptions of the science of caring in nursing as follows: a. Caring can only be effectively demonstrated and practiced interpersonally. b. Caring consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs. c. Effective caring promotes health and individual or family growth. d. Caring responses accept a person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become. Meaning of Caring Major assumptions of the science of caring in nursing as follows: e. A caring environment offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given time.

f. Caring is more healthogenic than is curing. The practice of caring integrates biophysical knowledge with knowledge of human behavior to generate or promote health and to provide ministrations to those who are ill. A science of caring is therefore complementary to the Meaning of of Caring science curing. Watson (1988) believes that human life is a gift to be cherished process of wonder, awe and mystery, holds the view that humans are valued to be cared for, respected, nurtured, understood and assisted, as a fully functional integrated self based on the philosophical belief that the humans are greater than and different from the sum of their parts, instead of reducing the human to body systems. Meaning of Caring Watson bases her theory for nursing practice on the following 10 carative factors. Each has dynamic phenomenological component that is relative to the individuals involved in the relationship as encompassed by nursing. The first three imnterdependent factors serve as the philosophical foundation for the science of caring. As Watsons ideas and values have evolved, she translated the 10 carative factors into caritas processes. In caritas

processes, there is a decidedly spiritual dimension and overt evocation of love and caring. Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The formation of humanistic -altruistic system of values CARITAS PROCESS Practice of loving-kindness and equanimity within the context of caring consciousness APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Humanistic values and an altruistic approach to life bring meaning to ones life

through relationships with other people as Adler (1927) believed that everyone tends to develop social interest as the individual outgrows egoism and strives for superiority over self. The formation of humanistic-altruistic value system is considered first and most basic factor for Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The instillation of faithhope CARITAS PROCESS Being authentically present and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective lifeworld of self and one being cared for

APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING The formations of a humanistic-altruistic value system and the third factor of instillation of faith-hope complement each other. The individual needs to recognize and have feelings in order to develop sensitivity to self and to others, which, in turn, provides one with a foundation for empathy with others. Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and to others CARITAS PROCESS

Cultivation of ones own spiritual practices transpersonal self going beyond the ego self APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING The recognition of feelings leads to self-actualization through self acceptance for both the nurse and the patient. As nurses acknowledge their sensitivity and feelings, they become more genuine, authentic and sensitive to others (Watson 1979). Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS Developm ent of a

helpingtrusting, human caring relation CARITAS PROCESS Developing and sustaining a helping trusting authentic caring relationship APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Watson suggests that development of a helpingtrusting relationship depends on the first three factors as they may determine the quality of ones relationship. The other characteristics affecting the development of human relationships provided by Watson (1985) are: Congruence Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE

FACTORS Developm ent of a helpingtrusting, human caring relation CARITAS PROCESS Developing and sustaining a helping trusting authentic caring relationship APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Watson (1985, 1988) also states that communication needs to be considered within the context of developing a helping-trusting relationship. Communication consisting of all the cognitive, affective and behavioral responses has three basic types of communication: a. Somatic level

Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The promotion and acceptanc e of the expression of positive and negative feelings CARITAS PROCESS Being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit and self and the onebeing cared for. APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING

The fifth factor of promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings is an inherent part of the development of a helpingtrusting relationship. Emotions, rather than cognition, play a central role in peoples behavior as indicated by Izard (1977) who maintains that Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The promotion and acceptanc e of the expression of positive and negative feelings CARITAS PROCESS Being present

to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit and self and the onebeing cared for. APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Though both cognition (thoughts) and affect (feelings) and the nonrational emotional aspect of an event should be focused on in caring behaviours, as Watson (1985) states, because feelings alter thoughts and behavior, and they need to be considered and allowed in caring relationship. Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The

systematic use of a creative problemsolving caring process CARITAS PROCESS Creative use of self and all ways of knowing as part of the caring process; to engage in the artistry of caring-healing practices APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Watson (1985) argues that the use of the scientific problem solving method allows the nurse to draw on common principles. Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE

FACTORS The promotion of transperso nal teachinglearning CARITAS PROCESS Engaging in genuine teachinglearning experiences that attends to unity of being and meaning attempting to stay within others frame of reference APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Interpersonal/ transpersonal teachinglearning involves processes engaged in by both the nurse and the patient. Watson (1985) explicates that it includes the issues of imparting

information as well as consideration of the nature of learning and what interpersonal/transperson Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS CARITAS PROCESS APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING The provision of supportive , protective and/or corrective mental, physical, societal and spiritual Creating healing environment at

all levels (physical as well as nonphysical, subtle environment of energy and consciousness, whereby wholeness, beauty, comfort, dignity and As Watson (1985) points out, a number of variables, which affect a persons life and wellbeing should be considered in day-to-day nursing care. Watson (1985, 1988) discusses those functions as promotion a supportive, protective and/or corrective mental, physical, societal and Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The assistance with

gratification of human needs CARITAS PROCESS APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering human care essentials, which potentiate alignment of mindbodyspirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care Assistance with gratification of human needs involves a great deal of information and subparts, through conceptually it are only one broad carative factor (Watson 1985). Based on the different human needs, Watson (1985, 1988)

categorizes lower order and higher order needs. The lower order needs are (1) the biophysical food and fluid need, (2) the elimination Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The assistance with gratification of human needs CARITAS PROCESS APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Assisting with basic needs, with an intentional caring consciousness, administering human care essentials, which potentiate alignment of

mindbodyspirit, wholeness, and unity of being in all aspects of care The higher order needs are designated psychosocial. They include 91) the achievement need, (2) the affiliation need, and (3) the need for self actualization. Keeping in mind the holisticdynamic framework for viewing human needs, the factor of assistance with the gratification of human needs leads to a more complete development of each human need, which are all equally Constructs of Caring Carative Factors and Caritas Process CARATIVE FACTORS The allowance for existentialphenomen ologicalspiritual forces CARITAS PROCESS

Opening and attending to spiritualmysterious, and existential dimensions of ones own lifedeath; soul care for self and the one-being cared for. APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CARING IN NURSING Watson considers this factor as difficult to understand. It is included to provide a thoughtprovoking experience leading to a better understanding of the self and others. Constructs of Caring

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