ESL 101: Practical Suggestions for Accommodating English ...
ESL 101: Practical Suggestions for Accommodating English Language Learners in the Regular Classroom Elana Hohl, St. James the Less Columbus, Ohio [email protected] Read the IM conversation on the next page. Use the information from the conversation to answer the questions. Pnutbuttr: Wuz ^ LTNS
Bandit: Chillin School Pnutbuttr: Wuz the 411 on Ethan? Bandit: Cant talk PAW Pnutbuttr: L8R then Bandit: No OK now Pnutbuttr: IZ movin? Bandit: HSIK Pnutbuttr: Heard he was %-( Bandit: Who Susan? :() Pnutbuttr: UL miss him Bandit: NBD Pnutbuttr: 8-0 Bandit: Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on Pnutbuttr: Who
Bandit: Alex . . . SETE Pnutbuttr: Wow B^ Bandit: Agreed. BRB Pnutbuttr: B4N Bandit: SYS Pnutbuttr: Wuz ^ LTNS Bandit: Chillin School Pnutbuttr: Wuz the 411 on Ethan? Bandit: Cant talk PAW Pnutbuttr: L8R then Bandit: No OK now Pnutbuttr: IZ movin? Bandit: HSIK
Pnutbuttr: Heard he was %-( Bandit: Who Susan? :() Pnutbuttr: UL miss him Bandit: NBD Pnutbuttr: 8-0 Bandit: Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on Pnutbuttr: Who Bandit: Alex . . . SETE Pnutbuttr: Wow B^ Bandit: Agreed. BRB Pnutbuttr: B4N Bandit: SYS 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. Why cant Bandit IM back when Pnutbuttr first contacts her? What does Bandit call Susan for telling about Ethan moving?
How does Bandit feel about Ethan moving? Why? What does the word LOL mean? When does Bandit plan to see Pnutbuttr? Pnutbuttr: Wuz ^ LTNS Bandit: Chillin School Pnutbuttr: Wuz the 411 on Ethan? Bandit: Cant talk PAW Pnutbuttr: L8R then Bandit: No OK now
Pnutbuttr: IZ movin? Bandit: HSIK Pnutbuttr: Heard he was %-( Bandit: Who Susan? :() Pnutbuttr: UL miss him Bandit: NBD Pnutbuttr: 8-0 Bandit: Yeah, LOL, Ive moved on Pnutbuttr: Who Bandit: Alex . . . SETE Pnutbuttr: Wow B^ Bandit: Agreed. BRB Pnutbuttr: B4N Bandit: SYS
Pnutbuttr: Whats up? Long time no see. Bandit: Ive been hanging out at school. Pnutbuttr: Whats the information on Ethan? Bandit: Cant talk. My parents are watching. Pnutbuttr: Ill talk to you later then. Bandit: No, its OK now. Pnutbuttr: Is he moving? Bandit: How should I know? Pnutbuttr: I heard he was confused. Bandit: From who? Susan? :() She has a big mouth. Pnutbuttr: Youll miss him. Bandit: No big deal.
Pnutbuttr: Im shocked. Bandit: Yeah, laugh out loud. Ive moved on. Pnutbuttr: Who? Bandit: Alex . . . Smiling from ear to ear. Pnutbuttr: Wow. Hes hot. Bandit: I agree. Be right back. Pnutbuttr: Bye for now. Bandit: See you soon. 1. Was this activity easy or difficult? 2. What would have helped you be more successful with this activity? 3. How does this relate to the ELLs in your class?
Lets clarify a few acronyms ELL - English language learner (the student) ESL - English as a second language (the program) LEP - limited English proficient (former term
for ELL) TESOL - teaching English to speakers of other languages (the professional organization) L1 - first language L2 - second language Why do we need to think about the ELL in our classrooms? Growing number of immigrants in our schools, particularly those of Hispanic origin. Public schools have been dealing with meeting the needs of second language learners from many countries--immigrants and refugees--for
years. Recent phenomenon in Ohios parochial schools due to the states voucher system. We have a moral obligation to educate all of the students in our classrooms. St. James has seen a growth from 8 to 150+ in the past 4 years. What factors do we need to consider to accommodate these students in our classrooms?
Background of Student BICS vs.CALP Content Area Classrooms Teaching Strategies Background of Student Age of the Student
Individual personality Language background Educational background of student of parent Background experiences Socio-economic level BICS vs. CALP BICS - Basic Interpersonal Communication
Skills or social language--the language of everyday conversation and social interaction learned in 6 months to 3 years CALP - Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency or academic language--the language of academic settings learned in 5 to 7 years--or longer What do students identify as reasons why content area subjects are difficult?
Homework--no one to help me at home Vocabulary, vocabulary, vocabulary No background in the subject Too many new concepts Tests, notes, text too difficult Too much to write and remember
Pacing is too fast Teacher speaks too fast Dont like to read What do students identify as reasons why they feel comfortable in a content area class?
The teacher tries to understand what I say. The teacher is nice to me. The teacher explains things to me. The teacher uses easier words to explain things to me when I dont understand. When there are fewer students in the class I dont feel embarrassed making mistakes. My English doesnt have to be perfect. What have students told us they need us to do to help them succeed in the classroom?
Explain things to me; help me to understand Use easier words Teach us how to do it (model) Repeat in different ways (scaffold) Use verbal and non-verbal cues Write on the board Use positive reinforcement Speak
slower Give us more time to do the work/assignment Say it more than once so we can get it Do group work so someone can explain to me Dont write in cursive Write it AND tell me Give me written notes so I can study at home
Teaching in primary grades tends to be more context embedded (show and tell/hands on/movement) Teaching in secondary grades tends to be less context imbedded and require more listening without the benefit of visual clues (lectures, read and respond to textbooks). Learning for ELLs at the secondary level depends on teachers using
strategies and accommodations to help their students learn. Language confusion in the content classes? Some examples Math A submarine is 285 feet under the surface of the ocean. A helicopter is flying at 285 feet above sea level. Given that the helicopter is directly above the submarine, how far apart are they? A.
B. C. D. 285 feet 4215 feet 4785 feet 4,500 feet Social Studies the right to bear arms Language Arts Q: Which words from the passage are
used as persuasion in that they express an attitude of sympathy for animals that are prey to big cats? A. how they move and hunt B. might eat fruit, field mice and large insects C. dinner, which is usually an unfortunate antelope. D. that they are wild, powerful animals. Surviving High Stakes Testing
ELLs must acquire the language skills needed for everyday communication--skills that native English speakers usually bring to school as well as those needed for subject matter learning. Children do not learn this kind of language on their own or through simple immersion in an English speaking environment. Mastering academic English--and thus surviving high stakes testing and graduating from high school-requires instructional activities and strategies that actively promote language development in
the context of learning intellectually challenging content. How to Modify for the ELL in Your Content Area Classroom: Realistic Suggestions from Teachers in the Trenches Suggestions for Modifying and Note-taking
Activate prior knowledge Brainstorm as a group Combine language objectives with content area objectives Use word associations (Ex. synonym and same) Pre-teach essential vocabulary Provide visual ways to remember things
Make real world associations (Ex. slope and snowboarding) Categorize vocabulary (Ex. by parts of speech, similarities, etc.
Connect to the cultures and backgrounds of diverse students (Ex. examine foods unique to students cultures to determine food groups) Classify information from texts using graphic organizers and other visual representations (tables, Tcharts, KWL charts, Venn diagrams) Connect through pictures and realia Complete tasks in small groups with specific responsibilities assigned to each student (recorder, reporter, supervisor) Give students specific items to identify rather than broad vocabulary words (Ex. Explorers--where from, where going, when and why, result/outcome
Student presentations through active involvement-chants, plays.drama, visuals, models dioramas, posters Sample Modifications for Social Studies and Science
Identify and make students responsible for the big ideas Break assignments into parts Pair ELLS with a competent science/social studies partner Reduce number of requirements within each part of the assignment Check frequently for understanding Write examples/directions on the board (visuals) Show ELLs a successfully completed assignment
Add participation to the standard of grading Choose an element that the ELL can relate to Give extended time Give mini-deadlines rather than one due date Test Modifications and Accommodations
Use old tests for review so students can become familiar with format, types of questions Reduce length of test as appropriate Provide review sheet Reduce language complexity Highlight key words Reduce number of choices (eg. 4 to 3 multiple choice responses)
Provide a word bank for fill-in-the-blank Reduce essay requirements. Assign a specific writing topic prior to the test. Read the test aloud to students with more basic English proficiency Provide extended time to complete the test Give open book/open note test Adapting Strategies for Classroom Instruction: What do we need to think about when we plan our lessons?
Activating and building background knowledge Checking for comprehension Giving clear directions
Creating homework routines Increasing opportunities for teacher-student interaction Increasing opportunities for student-student interaction Adapting textbooks Modifying the language of assignments Modifying assessments Giving alternative assessments Creating an environment where the student feels comfortable about asking
questions and making mistakes. Activating and Building Background Knowledge Brainstorm Think-pair-share Use graphic organizers when possible, such as K-W-L charts, webs, venn diagrams
Personalize the lessons (through comparisons, real world connections, etc. Link lessons to past learning and experiences Checking for Comprehension Never ask an ELL student, Do you understand? - Use signals (thumbs up, thumbs down) - Ask them to complete the sentence - Ask them to show you
- Ask an open-ended question (Not all questions are created equal.) End with review. It reinforces and provides feedback. Giving Clear Directions Help students identify multiple steps. Give both oral and written directions. Model what you want the student to do. Show the student examples of good work. Have the students repeat the directions
back to you. Ask for questions. Creating Homework Routines Allow the student adequate time to write down the homework. Write the assignment down in the same place every day. Allow time to begin in class. Allow extra time to complete the assignment.
Increasing Opportunities for Teacher-Student Interaction Lower anxiety. Encourage participation. Lengthen wait time. To involve ELLs, begin with Yes/No and oneword response questions, and gradually up the
ante as student gains more knowledge and language skills. Try to understand the message rather than the language. Repeat, review and summarize. Increasing Opportunities for Student-Student Interaction Small group work
Give explicit directions Discuss group responsibilities Mix groups Check for comprehension/clarification Provide a time frame Monitor groups as they work
End with sharing Use peer tutoring Pair ELLs with reliable students (same language or English-speaking) Adapting Textbooks
Pre-select and pre-teach essential vocabulary Highlight important concepts Use graphic organizers, such as T-notes and Venn diagrams Discuss the text. Dont expect the ELLs to be able to read it on their own. Find parallel texts/trade books that are written on a lower language level Examine new uses of familiar words Discuss synonyms Have students keep personal dictionaries
Modifying the Language of Assignments Provide a word bank Assign fewer questions. Choose questions that get at the big idea Evaluate for content only-the message and not the means Provide models and outlines Modifying Assessments
For essay questions, allow students to use visuals and graphics, e.g. sequenced pictures, labeled diagrams, maps, etc. Replace multiple choice questions (or even short answer and essay questions) with completion questions which require a much lower reading/language demand Example: The battle of Antietam was important because __________ .
Once the student can read well enough, use the cloze technique, omitting key words from a paragraph that students then have to replace. (Using a word list is often helpful in determining comprehension of key concepts.)
Allow use of a dictionary. Allow extended time to complete the tests. Shorten the test by choosing the concepts that are the most important. Limit choices on multiple choice tests. Divide word banks into smaller groups. Test the student orally. Allow students to use their notes. (Encourages them to pay attention and take notes.) Give an open book test. Giving Alternative Assessments Portfolios Learning
logs Self assessments Kids dont care how much you know until they know how much you care.
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