Erik Eriksons Stages of Development Presentation and Study by Elizabeth Eaton Life of Erik Erikson (1902-1994)
Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902 Raised by mother and stepfather, Dr. Homburger Wandered Europe after high school Studied child psychoanalysis with Anna Freud Married Joan Serson at age 27 Forced to leave Europe in 1933, moved to US First child analyst in Boston, MA Studied normal development of children across cultures Held positions at Yale, the University of California, and Harvard
Died as a professor at Harvard University in 1994 Eriksons Interest in Identity Struggle to find his own identity Did not know his father Adopted stepfathers last name Did not resemble his parents
Did not do well in high school Went through a moratorium Creation of his own identity Began studying the work of Sigmund Freud Built on Freuds stages of development Changed name from Erik Homburger to Erik H. Erikson Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Born in Moravia, 1856 Studied neurology and psychology Founder of psychoanalysis
Free association Theorized about The Unconscious Dreams Psychosexual Development Freuds Psychosexual Stages Freud believed that a persons identity was set by the time they were an adult, and that it was governed by the outcome of five developmental stages: Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital
In each stage, the childs libido is focused on an erogenous zone. If the child is over or under stimulated in a stage, he or she may develop neurotic behavior relating to that stages part of the body. Examples of neurotic traits would be having an oral fixation or being anal retentive. Eriksons vs Freuds Theory of Development Erik Erikson psychosocial 8 stages
general Sigmund Freud psychosexual 5 stages specific (more adorable than Freud) Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons First Stage of Development Age: Birth to 1 year Conflict: Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust
Core ego strength: Hope Freuds stage: Oral Can I trust the world? Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Second Stage of Development Age: 1 to 3 years Conflict: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt Core ego strength: Will Freuds stage: Anal Is it okay to be me? Eriksons Stages of Development
Eriksons Third Stage of Development Age: 3 to 6 years Conflict: Initiative vs Guilt Core ego strength: Purpose Freuds stage: Phallic Is it okay for me to do, move, and act? Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Fourth Stage of Development Age: 6 to 11 years Conflict: Industry vs Inferiority Core ego strength: Competence Freuds stage: Latency
Can I make it in the world of people and things? Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Fifth Stage of Development Age: Adolescence Conflict: Identity vs Role Confusion Core ego strength: Fidelity Freuds stage: Genital Who am I? Who can I be? Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Sixth Stage of Development Age: Young Adulthood
Conflict: Intimacy vs Isolation Core ego strength: Love Freuds stage: Genital Can I love? Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Seventh Stage of Development Age: Adulthood Conflict: Generativity vs Stagnation Core ego strength: Care Freuds stage: Genital Can I make my life work?
Eriksons Stages of Development Eriksons Eighth Stage of Development Age: Old Age Conflict: Ego Integrity vs Despair Core ego strength: Wisdom No equivalent stage for Freud Is it okay to have been me? My Study Questions Is Eriksons theory really observable in a small child? What specific behaviors outlined in Eriksons second stage does a child of that age exhibit?
Does a child in Eriksons second stage exhibit behaviors from the first or third stage? Hypothesis I will be able to observe evidence that a child between one and three years of age is going through Eriksons second stage of development, as opposed to the first stage or third stage. Method (Participants and Activities) Case study of one child, 21 months of age Observation conducted in the presence of Mom, Nana, and Papa Observation lasted about 1 hour
Activities were chosen by Mom and the grandparents and included A brief walk Play time Meal time Method (Rubric for Eriksons Stages 1-3) Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3
o Sucking o Feeding self o Why? o Biting o Grabbing / Picking up o Intrusive curiosity o Unable to walk or sit
up o Likes to walk on own o Efficient at walking o No! Mine! o Throwing / Placing o Able to sit up on own Results (Rubric for Eriksons Stages 1-3) Stage 1
Stage 2 Stage 3 Sucking Feeding self Grabbing / Picking up Likes to walk on own o Why? o Biting
o Unable to walk or sit up o No! Mine! Throwing / Placing Able to sit up on own o Intrusive curiosity o Efficient at walking Observations Stage 1 Child repeatedly puts
fingers in mouth and sucks on them Stage 2 Child feeds self with hands, spoon and holds sippy cup to feed self juice Child picks up decorative items, moves them to another location, places them. Child stacks blocks. Child walks and climbs by self. When child falls, picks self up. Conclusion Answers
Is Eriksons theory really observable in a small child? Yes! What specific behaviors outlined in Eriksons second stage does a child of that age exhibit? Feeding self, grabbing, likes to walk on own, throwing, able to sit up on own. Does a child in Eriksons second stage exhibit behaviors from the first or third stage? This child exhibited one trait from the first stage, sucking. Hypothesis I will be able to observe evidence that a child between 1 and 3 years of age is going through Eriksons second stage of development as opposed to the first stage or third stage. Confirmed! Limitations
Small sample (just 1 child) Did not observe potty training Rubric was self made Sources Crain, W. (2000). Theories of Development (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Prentice Hall Erikson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and Society (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1959/1980). Identity and the Life Cycle. New York: W. W. Norton. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: W. W. Norton. Freud, S. (1959). The Question of Lay Analysis. Trans. Strachey, J. (1978).
New York: W. W. Norton. Hoare, C. H. (2002). Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers. Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 712. Macnow, A. S., ed. (2014). MCAT Behavioral Science Review. New York: Kaplan Publishing. p. 220.
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