Epilepsy vs. Seizures

New Inclusion Terms for 345.7 and Posttraumatic Seizure Code ICD-9 CM Coordination and Maintenance Meeting March 12, 2009 Gregory L. Barkley, MD Vice President National Association of Epilepsy Centers American Academy of Neurology Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI Seizure - 780.39

A seizure is a paroxysmal behavioral spell generally caused by an excessive disorderly discharge of cortical nerve cells Epileptic seizures range from clinically undetectable (electrographic seizures) to convulsions. The symptoms vary depending upon the part of the brain involved in the epileptic discharge Most seizures last for about 1 minute Epilepsy - 345 Epilepsy is a syndrome of two or more unprovoked or recurrent seizures on more

than one occasion Epileptic syndromes are characterized by: The behavior during the seizure(s) (semiology) The age of onset Etiology, if known EEG characteristics of the seizure type(s) Status Epilepticus Defined as a prolonged seizure state Continuous epileptic activity Serial seizures without return to normal state of consciousness between seizures

Three Status Epilepticus Codes 345.2 Petit Mal Status Epilepticus 345.3 Grand Mal Status Epilepticus 345.7 Epilepsia partialis continua 345.7 Epilepsia Partialis Continua Kojevnikov's epilepsy (I have never seen this term used) Refers to a continuous partial seizure without alteration in consciousness e.g. clonic activity of a digit In effect, this is simple partial status epilepticus Current index terms under Epilepsy, status (grand mal) 345.3

Focal motor 345.7 Psychomotor 345.7 Temporal lobe 345.7 345.7 is missing terms for partial status epilepticus There is not an index term for [complex] partial status epilepticus Often seen in status epilepticus in association with acute brain lesions such as strokes A commonly used clinical term is nonconvulsive status epilepticus The clinical syndrome is of a patient with altered mental status and clinical and/or EEG evidence of

partial status epilepticus, a so-called twilight state Proposed index terms for 345.7 Partial Status Epilepticus Most clinicians will document this as Complex partial status epilepticus Simple partial status epilepticus Some may drop the epilepticus No need to have complex or simple in index I think that this should be the definition term rather than EPC to be consistent with 345.2 and 345.3 Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus Add terms to exclusions for 345.3 Also propose eliminating the 5th digit for intractability on

345.7 to be consistent with 345.2 and 345.3 Acute Symptomatic Seizures vs. Late onset Epilepsy Early seizures after acute brain derangement are symptomatic of the disturbance of brain function Can be thought of as reactive seizures Trauma, stroke, encephalitis, alcohol withdrawal Do not predict the later development of epilepsy Seizures beginning weeks to years later represent the development of epilepsy as a late effect and coded as such, 907.0, 438.9, 139.0 Also coded for partial epilepsy, 345.4x or 345.5x

Request for Code for Posttraumatic Seizures Propose adding 780.3x Posttraumatic seizure(s) Do not code with epilepsy, 345.0-345.9 Code first rules should apply to avoid confusion

Code first, the intracranial injury, 850-854 Alternatively, Code first, the seizure Epidemiological and prognostic importance

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