ENVI 21 Life in the Ocean

Fig 7.48 I. Chordata A. Urochordata - Tunicates Thaliacea Salps 2. Planktonic Transparent body with radial bands of muscle for locomotion Water enters through anterior incurrent siphon and is forced out through posterior excurrent siphon

Solitary or colonial Larvacea Appendicularians 3. Planktonic Superficially similar to tadpole larva Secrete mucus house for protection and feeding Feeding Link Fig 15.9 I. Chordata

B. Cephalocordata - Lancelets Possess all chordate characteristics throughout life (no backbone) Inhabit soft bottoms Suspension feeders (filter feeders) Gill slits used to filter particles out of water Fig 7.49 Female Male Vertebrata

II. Share four chordate characteristics + vertebral column (spine, backbone) Spine encloses and protects nerve cord (spinal cord) Anterior end of spinal cord = brain protected by skull made of bone or cartilage Fishes - Overview III.

Oldest group of vertebrates (530 mya) 27,000+ species (15,600+ marine spp.) Three major groups Agnatha (Jawless fishes) Hagfishes, Lampreys Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fishes)

Sharks, Rays, Skates, Ratfishes Osteichthyes (Bony fishes) Most familiar fish species Fig. 8.1 Fishes - Overview III. A.

Agnatha (Jawless fishes) Unpaired fins Lack jaws Round, muscular mouth with rows of teeth Hagfishes 1.

Scavengers (max length ~ 80 cm) How do they feed? Dig burrows in areas with mud bottoms, usually cold water Attack hooked or trapped fish Capable of producing slime!! Very flexible (can tie selves into knots) Why? Exploited commercially Eelskin wallets Lampreys 2. Most live in fresh water Attach to other fishes, rasp away sides and suck blood Also feed on benthic invertebrates

Fig. 8.2 Fishes - Overview III. A. Agnatha (Jawless fishes) Unpaired fins Lack jaws Round, muscular mouth with rows of teeth Hagfishes

1. Scavengers (max length ~ 80 cm) How do they feed? Dig burrows in areas with mud bottoms, usually cold water Attack hooked or trapped fish Capable of producing slime!! Very flexible (can tie selves into knots) Why? Exploited commercially Eelskin wallets Lampreys 2.

Most live in fresh water Attach to other fishes, rasp away sides and suck blood Also feed on benthic invertebrates Fishes - Overview III. B. Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fishes) Skeleton of cartilage (more flexible than bone) Movable jaws

Often contain well-developed teeth Mouth usually ventral Paired and unpaired fins Unpaired Dorsal Caudal

Anal Paired Pectoral Pelvic Placoid scales Fig. 8.8 Made of same material as teeth Fishes - Overview III.

B. Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous fishes) 1. Sharks Fusiform body Heterocercal tail Typically two dorsal fins Pectoral fins usually large and pointed Five to seven gill slits

Most sharks swim continuously to ventilate gills Whale shark = Largest fish species (to 60 ft) Plankton feeder Most prevalent in tropical coastal waters Exploited and often overfished Fins for soup Meat Oil Skin Abrasive, Shagreen Cartilage Therapeutic Fig. 8.4

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