End-To-End Residential Broadband Architecture

End-To-End Residential Broadband Architecture And Products Opportunities Timothy Kwok, Ph.D Architect Network Architecture Group Windows Networking Microsoft Corporation Agenda Residential Broadband and Deployment Microsoft Residential Broadband Strategy Broadband Support in Windows End-to-end ADSL and G.Lite Service Architecture

Home Networking Architecture Cable Modem Architecture Product Opportunities in Broadband Auto Service Provisioning Call to Action What Is Residential Broadband? Fast networks to and through the home Requirements for residential broadband are different from business needs: Market drivers:

Demands far greater ease of use Scale is potentially huge compared to business networking Driven by lifestyle/entertainment/information services Fast Web access - #1 consumer request Ecommerce - shopping and transactions Fat pipes to the home drive in-home networking How Quickly Will Broadband Happen? U.S. Residential High-Speed Data Service Connections By Technology (M) (IDC 10/98, Jupiter 8/98, Dataquest 10/98) U.S. Residential High-Speed Data Service Connections by Technology Connections (M) 14 Other (ISDN, Satellite, Wireless)(IDC) Cable Modem

(Jupiter) 12 10 8 6 4 DSL (Jupiter) 2 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 Calendar Year 2002 Microsoft Residential

Broadband Strategy Objective: enable and accelerate deployment of residential broadband services and applications Network Agnostic, focus on all emerging media: cable, DSL, wireless, etc. Promote standards and interoperability Work with existing standards bodies: ITU-T, IETF, ADSL Forum, ATM Forum, CableLabs/MCNS Accelerate standards development: E.g., PPP over ATM, G.Lite Drive ad hoc industry efforts as needed: e.g., UAWG Working with the industry to drive deployment (network operators and vendors)

E.g., ease of use, Auto-Service provisioning Windows Support For Broadband Networking Implement necessary standards-based networking protocols support into Windows Native ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) PPP over ATM support (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Windows 98 Second Edition Full QoS support in Windows 2000 including RSVP, diffserv, QoS policy, and traffic control Windows 98 - RSVP native

Internet Sharing (Windows 98 and Windows 2000) Windows 98 Second Edition PPTP support (Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000) Remote NDIS (Windows 98 and Windows 2000: beta H2 99; Windows CE: beta CY 2000) Residential Broadband Service Model Service Providers Customer premise Network Access Provider Content Providers Internet ISP (POP)

Corporate networks Regional Broadband Network Access network CO/Cable Hub Regional Operation Center Residential Broadband Service Requirements Provide four key connectivity services:

Internet access (information, games, etc.) Corporate networking: telecommuting Local content (local news-on-demand, video on demand) Peer-to-peer communications (video conferencing, IP telephony, multi-player games, etc.) Each service has different requirement sets Residential Broadband Service Requirements Public network: privacy, authorization, authentication and accounting Connect simultaneously to multiple ISPs and corporations

Connect to corporations with multiple layer 3 protocols Auto-service provisioning (qualification, registration, verification) Support multicast Support QoS (service classes or per VC QoS) DSL Technologies Digital Subscriber Line Suitable for data and video Employs existing copper infrastructure Why bandwidth >> analog modem?

Shorter distance, typically < 18 Kft Much wider spectrum (MHz versus 4 kHz) Advanced DSPs What Is ADSL? (Full rate) ADSL modems Support both high speed data and POTS on separate spectrum Downstream (dedicated) 1.5 Mbps (18 Kft); 6-8 Mbps (9-12 Kft) Upstream (dedicated) 64 Kbps (18 Kft), 640 Kbps (9-12 Kft)

Require splitter installed at customer premise DSL Frequency Spectrum ADSL POTS Downstream Upstream 1.5Mbps 0.3 3.5 20 140 8 Mbps 552 Frequency (kHz) G.Lite

1104 Why Universal-ADSL (G.Lite)? Truck roll required to install full rate ADSL limit deployment scale and rate Need consumer version of ADSL Tens of thousands instead of millions Limited by number of trucks :)! Low complexity Easy and fast deployment in millions Remove need of splitter => avoid truck roll

What Is G.Lite? ADSL with no splitter needed Up to 1.536 Mbps Down, 512 kbps Up Reach: be able to operate on short and long loops, trading data rate against reach Complementary to ADSL A training wheel for consumers Focused on internal G.Lite PC comes with built-in G.Lite modem

Together with analog (V.90) UAWG (Universal ADSL Working Group) Motivation: accelerate deployment of millions of DSL, not 10,000s History Complement existing full rate ADSL Formed in late 1997 Co-founded by Compaq, Intel, and Microsoft, together with U.S. telcos Over 50 companies today (including all major DSL vendors)

Goals: accelerate development of G.Lite technologies and interoperability Work with ITU to specify G.Lite UAWG Accomplishments ITU-T Determined G.Lite in October 1998 Less than a year from start, versus typical 4-year ITU standards cycle Interoperability efforts begun with UAWG members: with multiple successful tests End-To-End DSL Service Architecture (Standards-Based)

End-to-end ATM between home PCs and destination networks/servers at Internet service providers (ISPs) Corporate networks Content providers One or more virtual connections (VCs) to ISPs, corporate networks, local content G.Lite has been specified to support ATM exclusively Advantages Of The ATM End-To-End Model

A real WAN solution Protocol Transparency: multiple protocols at higher layers Multiple Service Classes QoS guarantees: on per VC basis Security: connection-oriented Fine grain bandwidth scalability: Match the adaptiveness of ADSL Evolution to other xDSL technologies Baseline Model Employers Corporate Network Tunnel RAS Internet

ISP Internet Content Provider Local Content Provider ATM Network Native ATM Service Provider ADSL PPP Over ATM Model PPP runs exclusively over an ATM VC

Null Encapsulation for mapping PPP over AAL5 SVC: selected using specific B-LLI signalling information element to specify PPP PVC: default is Null Encapsulated PPP Standardized by ADSL Forum and IETF No other protocols sharing the connection ADSL Forum TR-012 RFC 2364 G. Lite has been specified to

support ATM exclusively End-To-End Protocol Architecture ICP ISP or corporate network Telco: CO and Core network Client IP IP PPP PPP ATM ADSL

PPP Client Authentication Internet Backbone ISP POP Call setup ATM Network ISP Data Center Content Provider ADSL PPP Client Authentication Internet Backbone ISP POP ATM

Network ISP Data Center Content Provider RADIUS authentication PPP CHAP ADSL PPP Client Authentication ISP POP Internet Backbone ATM Network ISP Data Center Content Provider

Connection to Internet services ADSL Advantages Of The PPP Over ATM Model Preserves dial-up model to ISP and corporate networks: leverages existing infrastructure Support simultaneous connections to multiple networks Reduce cost by removing modem bank

Multiple PPP calls over separate ATM VCs Support multiple IP addresses at each client Uses each networks respective IP address space Leveraging PPP capabilities Security, Autoconfiguration, Address Assignment, etc. Windows Broadband Services Via DSL Modems Demonstration PPP Over ATM SVC To Corporate Network, Internet And Local Content Provider Corporate network Internet Windows 2000 Server

(PPTP/RAS) Windows 2000 Server (RAS) Regional Broadband Network DSLAM with SVC capability Local content NetShow on Windows 2000 Server Home DSL modem Gateway PC

Kid's PC Dad's PC Home Networking And Broadband Home PC(s) Configurations 10BaseT PCI DSL modem PC Hub 10BaseT Modem PC Case B 10BaseT

PC USB Modem PC 10BaseT PC 1394 Modem PC LAN PC Hub LAN Gateway DSL modem

10BaseT PC Modem Case A PC PC Case C Case A - Single PC Modem connection options: PCI card (exposed to O/S as an ATM device) USB modem (exposed as an ATM device

using Remote NDIS) IEEE 1394 modem (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) - in the future Point-to-point Ethernet (exposed as an ATM device using Remote NDIS) Case B - Shared Modem Problem: Extending PPP over the local home network Solution: Use local PPTP tunneling, leveraging existing PPTP support in Windows 95, 98, and 2000 Private IP within the home PPTP to the modem (terminated at modem) PPP over ATM across the network Reach different destinations from different PCs Why PPPOE is not recommended?

Re-inventing the existing protocol support Requires new proprietary protocol development Requires user to install new stack Local Tunnel Approach (PPTP/L2TP) For Multi-PC HTTP TCP IP IP PPP PPP ATM ATM SONET/SDH Service Provider

ATM ADSL Telco L2TP/ PPTP L2TP/ PPTP IP IP Ethernet MAC DsL Modem or PC with built-in DSL modem Client PC Case C - Home Gateway

Windows 2000 or Windows 98 as Home Gateway Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC connects to DSL line as in case A In-home network behaves as Ethernet Client Devices behind the Windows 2000 or Windows 98 PC using Autoconfigured using DHCP allocator Shares the Internet connection using NAT technology Product Opportunities In ATM And DSL ATM over ADSL adapter External ADSL modem: with Ethernet, or

USB interface, or ATM 25 For Ethernet, supports local tunnel (PPTP) For USB, use Remote NDIS ATM 25 NICs with traffic shaping (ATM over) G.Lite and V.90 built in to PC ATM vendors: excellent SVC support is super critical (with billing and policy control interface) Signaling DSLAM: DSL Access Multiplexors Cable Architecture: Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) Drop Amplifier/

line extender (Headend) Cable Hub Feeder Neighborhood Area A Fiber Node Neighborhood Area C Fiber (optoelectronics) Coax About 500 homes passed Neighborhood Area B HFC Cable Architecture

Spectrum allocation Downstream: 50 - 750 MHz Upstream: 5 - 42 MHz Node size: 500 to 2,000 homes passed Upgraded return path for upstream communications Cable modem bandwidth shared per node Downstream per 6MHz: 27-36 Mbps Upstream: 500 kbps - 10 Mbps Cable Modem Network

Architecture (DOCSIS) Router Switch Cable PC Modem HFC Regional Headend (Internet and Broadband service Local caching, DHCP CMTS servers (cable router) Ethernet or USB, or PCI

Cable Standard Trends CableLabs: DOCSIS (also referred to as MCNS): defines how to provide basic Internet access over cable V1.0 is done - deployment by EOY 98 V1.1 adds QoS at the cable MAC layer deployment by mid/end 99 PacketCable: defines how to support VoIP over cable Builds upon DOCSIS v1.1. Client: external voice adapter integrated with CM Service: primary voice and secondary voice OpenCable: defines a interoperable digital STB Cable Modem Products Opportunities

Short-term: external Cable modems with Ethernet or USB Interface Long-term (low cost) approach: Internal (host-based) cable modems with QoS Take advantage of Windows QoS support CMTS and cable modem supports DOCSIS 1.1 for QoS support CMTS supports RSVP (and translation into DOCSIS 1.1) Provisioning For DSL The Problem Provisioning of DSL is complicated and expensive today because

Multiple providers (ISP, telcos) coordination Loop qualification PC software and hardware qualification Service availability not guaranteed Requires truckroll Goal: Plug and Play simplicity without truckroll => will allow accelerated deployment of services Microsoft has been working with major Telcos, ISPs, CLEC and vendors, and to solve provisioning problem Provisioning Requirements

Support multiple purchasing channels Online signup and registration Fastest possible loop qualification Automated line and service ordering between ISPs and LECs (XML or EDI) No truck roll required (before or after) Rapid service fulfillment (like POTS) Provide interim V.90 service while waiting for DSL service activation How Does The User Buy? Off-the-Shelf PC Ordered from PC OEM Ordered from ISP/OSP

Ordered from DSL provider Connecting To Broadband Required steps (not necessarily in order) User requests service Loop and PC qualification Loop installation Device and Protocol installation Local connection configuration Local network connectivity establishment Sign-on, service selection, and connection Account authorization and service creation

Requirements For G.Lite No truck roll - must enable users to it themselves Plug-and-play installation of service Configuration required of Physical Layer (DSL line coding) ATM layer (PVC and SVC configurations) Encapsulation type (PPPOA) IP layer (e.g., static addresses) Applications (browser settings, etc.)

Provisioning Procedure Client uses V.90 to Referral Server Referral Server sends offers Client connects to chosen ISP ISP identifies DSL availability and loop qualification from providers May be restricted to OEM partners Using XML/EDI interchange in real time ISP provides Interim Narrowband service to user using INS file

Provisioning Procedure ISP places DSL order with provider Automated using XML and/or EDI DSL provider connects loop and decides Low Layer configuration Low Layer INS information is passed to ISP by DSL provider ISP assembles complete Broadband INS and downloads to client ICW code on client configures PC and connects broadband service Provisioning Procedure PSTN

Analog modem Interim INS ISP (NB) Registration Server Interim Service B r oa d band I NS DSL modem Lo op O rder Low Laye r C onfig uratio n Signup ISP

Loop Qualifi cation Referral Server st Reque BB Offer S) N I ( s r e Off DSL provider Windows Logo For Broadband DSL NIC

External DSL modem Prerequisite: Standards based - T1.413 Issue 2, G. Lite (G. 992.2) NDIS 5.0 driver See PC 99 System Design Guide With USB: remote NDIS With Ethernet: local PPTP tunnel Cable modem NIC Under development: based on ongoing CableLabs host-based cable modem work Feedback welcome

Conclusion Residential Broadband Services Tidal wave coming G.Lite (G.992.2) allows rapid DSL deployment to millions of homes PPP over ATM is the target End-to-End protocol architecture for DSL systems For both ADSL and G.Lite Cable: DOCSIS is the (de facto) standard For rapid nationwide rollout, must focus on Interoperability (both physical and higher layers)

Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play) Call To Action Build standards-based solution G.Lite (G.992.2) ADSL: ANSI T1.413 Issue 2 Higher layer protocol: PPP over ATM over DSL Cable modem: DOCSIS 1.0 or 1.1 Build ATM/DSL (G.Lite and T1.413) NIC, compatible with NDIS 5.0 (get Windows logo) Build ATM/DSL support on PC directly Remote NDIS for external DSL and cable

modem (e.g., USB) PPTP local tunnel support for external DSL modem with Ethernet interface Call To Action Please help expedite DSL and cable Deployment Interoperability (both physical and higher layers) Auto-service provisioning (true plug and play) Follow Microsoft design guidelines for DSL Provide feedback to our DSL and cable architecture white papers References

Feedback: send e-mail to Design guidelines and DSL and cable white papers For DSL: [email protected] For cable: [email protected] PC 99 System Design Guide; PC XX at http://www.pcdesguide.org http://www.microsoft.com/hwdev/network Design guidelines for external modems End-to-end DSL architecture End-to-end cable architecture PPP/ATM, DSL Architecture

ATM: The New Paradigm for the Internet, Intranets and Residential Broadband Service and Applications, Tim Kwok, Prentice Hall, 1998

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