Emotional Flexibility - Grand Valley State University

EMOTIONAL RESILIENCY: Increasing Flexibility in Older Adults Kelly Purdue, LMSW Amy VanDorp, LMSW WHAT IS STRESS? Recognizing stress and trauma

in older adults Stress is a state of mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or very demanding circumstances (Webster, 2000) Trauma is a deeply distressing or disturbing experience. (Webster, 2000)

LOPES scale How does stress affect older adults? can mimic and exacerbate the affects of aging often show greater immunological impairment to stress than younger adults (ability to fight off diseasesarthritis, thyroid, and diabetes

as well as common ailments: colds, pneumonia, influenza) How does stress affect older adults? (continued) Early life stress (prenatal or early life) increases the likelihood the maladaptive

immune responses to stress in later life. ( www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) What does stress do to the brain? BRAIN Amygdala: associated with fear and alarm Prefrontal cortex: Executive center and

regulates emotions and acts to keep amygdala in check Hippocampus: plays a critical role in learning and forming new memories and regulating the stress response. Is vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress.

THE BRAIN ON STRESS Function of the temporal lobes

Auditory perception Memory (both short and long term) Memory retrieval

Speech Emotional responses Visual perception Spatial navigation (aides in visualizing surroundings) Neuroplasticity

The ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function, and connections. (Kramer et.al 2011) WHAT IS OUR JOB as Helpers? Recognize the role of older adults coping mechanisms and styles in their ability to manage

stressful events Managing stressful events What complicates resilience? Depression Traumatic brain injury Financial insecurity

Low level of education Poor or weak social networks Grief Substance abuse, mental illness (Southwick and Charney, 2012) Fauja Singh

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gk23yGu D6P0 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. Share with your neighbor one thing that surprised you about Fauja Singhs experience. 2. What would be his advice be to another

older person experiencing stressful events? (You have three minutes) Francine Christophe Life is beautiful https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gXGfngjm wLA

Older Woman Receiving her High School Diploma http://fox17online.com/2015/10/30/97-yearold-woman-get-diploma-from-gr-catholic-cent ral/ Brain resiliency

BRIEF RESILIENCE SCALE 1. I tend to bounce back quickly after hard times 2. I have a hard time making it through stressful events 3. It does not take me long to recover from stressful events. 4. It is hard for me to snap back when something bad

happens. 5. I usually come through difficult times with little trouble. 6. I tend to take a long time to get over setbacks in my life. Your Toolbox

Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) Impact of Events Scale for Older Adults Coping Toolbox

Psychological Flexibility Measure Resiliency Quiz Four Ways to Build Emotional Resilience Practice self-compassion: simply applying the same concern and warm wishes for the suffering to end of a good friendas for your own suffering

Slow Down Practice Gratitude Practice Humility Personal Model of Resilience Is a plan to include strength, strategies, images and metaphors.

Lets review some different interventions that we has helping professionals can use. Intervention #1: Finding resolution and fortitude Interventions:

Narrative therapy: is a form of psychotherapy that seeks to help people identify their values and the skills and knowledge they have to live these values, so they can effectively confront whatever problems they face. NARRATIVE Therapy should ask:

How is this conversation going for you? Should we keep talking about this or would you be more interested in ? Is this interesting to you? Is this what we should spend our time talking about? I was wondering if you would be more interested in me asking you some more about this or whether we should focus on X, Y or Z? [X,

Y, Z being other options] In this way, narrative conversations are guided and directed by the interests of those who are consulting the therapist. (Alice Morgan, What is Narrative Therapy? 2000) Narrative Therapy is understanding and living our lives through stories

Narrative Therapys Story Telling We all have many stories about our lives and relationships, occurring simultaneously. For example, we have stories about ourselves, our abilities, our struggles, our competencies, our actions, our desires, our relationships, our

work, our interests, our conquests, our achievements, our failures. #2 METAPHORIC THERAPY Metaphoric therapy is a kind of psychotherapy that uses metaphor as a tool to help people express their experiences symbolically.

Metaphors in History Metaphors have a long history, and are used in the Christian Bible, the Hebrew Torah and also the Islam Quran. The metaphor of a ladder that stretches from the Earth to Heaven is common in all three holy books.

Metaphors in History The classic Greek thinkers also told stories using metaphors--think mythologies rich in symbolic meaningslike the tale of Daedalus and Icarus, for example. Why do metaphors work in therapy?

First, stories, if properly constructed and told, are usually more interesting than the straight telling of the points one wishes to make. Stories capture the imagination, and inspire clients to undertake tasks or think of things in a different way. Psychotherapy is seldom simply telling people

what to doits helping people to see things differently and feel differently about them. Why do metaphors work? Second, stories tend to be less threatening and confrontational because they are veiled. Stories make points gently.

Thirdly, stories and anecdotes offer another advantage: they model a way of communicating. Clinical Use of Metaphors Use them to: Make or illustrate points

Suggest solutions to problems Help people to recognize themselves Seed ideas and increase motivation Decrease resistance Reframe and redefine problems Remind clients of their own resources

Some universal metaphors The never-ending film Universal metaphors The flat earth #3 Other ways to increase resiliency

Increase social and emotional connections with others (meaningful relationships): such as volunteering, empathy and giving to others #4 Therapies that Increase Resiliency

Pet Therapy

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Solution focused therapy Humor therapy Strengths-based therapy Life review EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy)

Four Steps to Resilience (Padesky and Mooney, 2003) 1. 2. 3. 4.

Search for strengths Construct a model of resilience Apply the PMR (personal model of resilience) Practice resilience STEP ONE SEARCH FOR STRENGTHS

Within positive, sustained activities Introduce obstacles Many different types of strengths STEP TWO CONSTRUCT THE PERSONAL MODEL OF RESILIENCE (PMR)

Turn strengths into general strategies (explore an untroubled area of a persons lifeat what are they successful?) Use the clients own words Include images and metaphors STEP THREE

Apply the PMR (Personal Model of Resilience) Identify problem areas in need of resilience Plan which PMR strategies to use Focus on resilience, not outcome STEP FOUR

PRACTICE Design behavioral experiments Resilience predictions Many different types of strengths (Padesky & Mooney, 2003) Meaning, Purpose and Growth

Research tells us that having a clear and valued purpose, and committing fully to a mission= strengthened resilience. 10 Forms of Coping (Southwick & Charney, 2012)

Realistic Optimism Facing Fear Moral Compass Religion and Spirituality

Social Support Resilient role models Physical Fitness Brain Fitness Cognitive and Emotional Flexibility Meaning, Purpose and Growth Life Orientation Test (revised)

LOT-R Please be as honest and accurate as you can throughout. Try not to let your response to one statement influence your responses to other statements. There are no "correct" or "incorrect" answers. Answer according to your own feelings, rather than how you think "most people" would answer.

A = I agree a lot B = I agree a little C = I neither agree nor disagree D = I DISagree a little

E = I DISagree a lot

1. In uncertain times, I usually expect the best.

[2. It's easy for me to relax.] 3. If something can go wrong for me, it will. 4. I'm always optimistic about my future. [5. I enjoy my friends a lot.] [6. It's important for me to keep busy.] 7. I hardly ever expect things to go my way. [8. I don't get upset too easily.]

9. I rarely count on good things happening to me. 10. Overall, I expect more good things to happen to me than bad. Realistic Optimism When something bad happens: Remember that these difficulties wont last forever

Dont let the adverse situation pervade other parts of your life. Think of strengths and resources that will help Notice what is good Facing Fear

View fear as a guide View fear as an opportunity

Focus on the goal or mission Get information on what you are afraid of Learn and practice skills necessary to master the fear Face fear with friends/colleagues Face fear with spiritual support Moral Compass

Resilient individuals possess a keen sense of right and wrong that strengthened them during periods of extreme stress and afterward, as they adjusted to life following trauma. Religion and Spirituality

Social Support Invest effort in giving and receiving social support Evaluate your own social network Join a support group

Role Models Role models and mentors: Foster resilience through words and actions Teach and demonstrate Inspire and motivate Provide consistent and reliable support Teach moral and ethical integrity

Model courage Physical Fitness Physical fitness and mastering physical challenges improves mood, cognition and emotional resilience. Exercise increases endorphins and decreases dopamine and serotonin

Exercise protects against the hormonal effects of chronic stress Aerobic exercise turns on growth genes in the brain Brain Fitness Focus on the problem

Process information quickly Remember what we already know about this challenge Find strategies to solve the problem Make wise decisions Learn new information Regulate our emotionscontrol them rather than

be controlled by them Choosing Resiliency https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=lu35Flqjw-w

Acceptance Reappraisal (taking stock of situation and life) Learn from failure Use humor

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