Emile Zola (1840-1902) - Longwood University

Emile Zola (1840-1902) Zola (suite) Germinal (1885) Le Roman exprimental (1880) Dans cet essai, Zola explique sa thorie du naturalisme en littrature. Le naturalisme prtend une rigueur scientifique.

Zola (suite) Selon Zola, [] le romancier est fait dun observateur et dun exprimentateur. Lobservateur chez lui donne les faits tels quil les a observs, pose le point de dpart, tablit le terrain solide sur lequel vont marcher les personnages et se dvelopper les phnomnes. Puis, lexprimentateur parat et institue lexprience [experiment], je veux dire, fait

mouvoir les personnages dans une histoire particulire, pour y montrer que la succession des faits y sera telle que lexige le dterminisme des phnomnes mis ltude (63-64). Zola (suite) Cette thorie fait du roman une exprience scientifique qui produit un document sociologique. Le romancier naturaliste subordonne la psychologie

et sattache faire ressortir les conditions physiologiques (alcoolisme, p. ex.) et linfluence des milieux et des circonstances (sociales, politiques, etc.) qui, selon lui, dterminent la personne humaine: La science exprimentale ne doit pas sinquiter du pourquoi des choses; elle explique le comment, pas davantage (61). Zola (suite)

La psychologie individuelle qui faisait tout lintrt dun roman de Balzac cde la place chez Zola une psychologie, plutt une sociologie de masse.

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