. Why is Trauma Care Important? Leading cause of death in those <40 y 3rd leading cause of death in all ages Significant loss of work force productivity Background Trimodal distribution of death
50% die at scene What do they die of? 50% survive to hospital but then die 30% die during golden hour 20% die after prolonged hospital course In ER Patients in their Golden Hour must: Be recognized quickly Have only immediate life threats
managed Be transported to an APPROPRIATE facility In ER Survival depends on assessment skills Good assessment results from An organized approach Clearly defined priorities Understanding available resources Preparation yourself
Primary survey Airway Maintenance with Cervical Spine Protection Signs of airway obstruction Inspection for foreign bodies Chin lift or jaw thrust
GCS of 8 or less definitive airway management Prevent excessive movement of the cervical spine Inline immobilization techniques Breathing and Ventilation Assess chest wall excursion Auscultation Visual inspection and palpitation B : Breathing and Ventilation
Objective sign Look : Symmetrical expansion Paradoxical movement Location and depth of the wound Listen : Breath sound Pulse oximeter :
Measure oxygen saturation. B : Breathing and Ventilation Objective sign Pulse oximetry Pa O22 level O22 Hbg Saturation levels 90 90 mm
mm Hg Hg 100 100 % % 60 60 mm mm Hg Hg
90 90 % % 30 30 mm mm Hg Hg 60 60 % %
27 27 mm mm Hg Hg 50 50 % % Circulation with Hemorrhage Control 1. blood volume and cardiac output
Level of consciousness : impaired cerebral perfusion Skin color : gray skin of face, white skin of extremities Accessible central pulse (Primary Radial = 80 mmHg., femoral=70 mmHg., carotid=60 mmHg) Absent central pulses : immediate resuscitation Circulation with Hemorrhage Control 2. bleeding External hemorrhage is identified
and controlled in the primary survey Direct manual pressure Pneumatic splinting devices Tourniquets hemostat Disability (Primary Neurologic Evaluation ) Alert Verbal Pain Unresponse Pupillary size and reaction Lateralizing signs
Spinal cord injury level GCS Exposure/Environment Control Completely undressed Prevent hypothermia Warm blanket Warmed IV Warmed environment (Primary room temperature) What should you do
ET tube or not C spine protection
ICD or ET-tube ICD single or both Oxygen saturation 3 sides coverage NG tube or OG tube foley catheter Hemorrhage control FAST DPL Unseen wonud What should you do
Secondary survey A allergy M Medication P past illness / pregnancy L last meal E event / environment
Physical examination (trauma system) 1. Head 2. Maxillofacial 3. Neck 4. Chest 5. Abdomen 6. Perineum (Primary back , axilla) 7. Extremity 8. Neuro - exam Film x-ray
A airway trachea R L main bronchus ET tube position tube carina 2-3 cm. B breathing lung parenchyma pleural line costophrenic angle C cardiac shadow heart ratio 0.5 mediastinum 8 cm. D diaphragm , E emphysema subcutaneous emphysema
F Fracture rib Film C-spine A alignment 4 -anterior , posterior , spinolamina , spinous process B bone 2-7 C cartilage and disc prevertebral soft tissue swelling Film pelvis AP 6
Un corrected ER triage Uncontrolled Management system Medical personnels
Visitors and press Pitfall in primary survey and c-spine control Delay or inadequate airway control
Delay or undetection of c-spine injuries Delay or undetected chest injuries
Inappropiate fluid resuscitation Undetected wound of back or perineal wounds A blood pressure or an exact respiratory or pulse rate is NOT necessary to tell that your patient is critical !!!!!
If the patient looks sick, hes sick!!! primary survey c-spine chest injuries pelvis perinium rectal examination long bone
Investigation CT abdomen angiogram vascular Investigation injuries film chest, pelvis, c-spine multiple trauma investigate coma score
Computability and Complexity 20-1 Random Sources Computability and Complexity Andrei Bulatov Computability and Complexity 20-2 Random Choices We have seen several probabilistic algorithms, that is algorithms that make some random choices during the computation We have proved that those algorithms...
THE CELTS:'Celtic' identity was born in the 18th century 'CELTIC' LANGUAGE ... The building materials required for Iron Age roundhouses called for the careful management of natural resources. ... BRITISH PREHISTORY
Notice of Exemption - Copy of filed NOE containing the local county clerk(-s) and OPR date stamps, plus any supporting documents (such as BMP information and incorporated measures) Initial Study and Negative Declaration or Mitigated Negative Declaration. Draft and Final...
Fair assessment of group and team work Repercussions of student dissatisfaction (lower ratings, etc) Competencies Defined by the needs of the workforce and are the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSA's) required to achieve an acceptable level of performance Achieved...
The terminal end of an arteriole tapers toward the capillary junction to form a . single metarteriole. At the metarteriole-capillary junction, the distal most muscle cell forms the . precapillary sphincter. which monitors and . regulates blood flow . into...
(1) Read mapping: range of usage. The accurate alignment of reads generated by NGS machines to a reference genome is a crucial part in many application workflows, such as . genome resequencing (in contrast to de novo assembly), DNA methylation,...
Exothermic vs Endothermic. Exothermic. Endothermic. A chemical reaction that gives off energy. The reactants have more energy than is needed to form the products so they release it. I.e. gives off heat. A chemical reaction that absorbs energy.
Currier and Ives were "publishers of cheap and popular prints" which included cards and calendars. This is an original "worsted" picture made by Grandma Moses using yarns. It is in the Galerie St. Etienne in New York.
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!