Dual Language Immersion Basics - CARLA

1 Dual Language and Immersion Family Education DLI Family Education ENGAGE 2 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success Partners 3 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success Introductions

Pixabay o o o o o Your name Number and ages of your children Your school Languages spoken at home What motivated you to come here tonight 4 Mission Statement To enrich the educational experience of Dual

Language and Immersion (DLI) learners by engaging, educating, and empowering families. 5 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success Student ENGAGE ER OW ED UC AT

E P EM Family Success in school and beyond Teachers & School 6 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success

Workshop Topics 1. Dual Language and Immersion Basics 2. Bilingualism and Biliteracy 3. The Challenges of DLI 4. College and Career Opportunities 7 Session Objective I understand the goals and key features of Dual Language and Immersion Education (DLI). 8 D Bili evelop ngu m

al E enta d uc l atio n age gu Lan ay sion e -w e r On Imm ay o-w on Tw ersi m

Im NAWHERC Ind i Imm genou ers s io n What is Dual Language and Immersion? Minnetonka Public Schools 9 Pickit Pickit

(Adapted from The Dual Language Umbrella in U.S. Schools [Howard et al., 2003] ) D Bili evelop ngu m al E enta d uc l atio n age gu Lan ay sion

e -w e r On Imm ay o -w o n Tw ersi m Im Ind i Imm genou ers s io n Which programs work best for these families?

What would you say to each of these three parents? 10 D Bili evelop ngu m al E enta d uc l atio n Ind

i Imm genou ers s io n age gu Lan ay sion e -w e r On Imm ay o -w o n Tw ersi m Im

My family is of Dakota heritage. My grandparents speak some Dakota, but I do not. I want my child to learn the language of our people and to learn about the Dakota culture. What kind of program is best for my child? 11 D Bili evelop ngu m al E enta duc l

atio n Ind i Imm genou ers s ion age gu Lan ay sion e-w er On Imm ay

o-w on Tw ersi m Im I do not know any language other than English, but I want my child to be able to speak another language so that he will be better prepared for a global economy. What kind of program is best for my child? 12 D Bili evelop ngu

m al E enta duc l atio n Ind i Imm genou ers s io n age gu La n ay sion

e -w e r On Imm ay o-w on Tw ersi m Im My family speaks Spanish at home. I want my child to learn English, but I want her to keep learning our home language as well. What kind of program is best for my child? 13

The Goals of DLI Education Openclipart Academic achievement Bilingualism and biliteracy Cultural competence 14 (Fortune, 2013) Academic Achievement Openclipart DLI students achieve at the same level or higher in their academic subjects as similar students in English-only programs. Pickit

15 (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2014) Academic Achievement Pickit English home language students may experience a temporary lag in English reading and writing skills, but within a year or two after instruction in English language arts begins, the lag disappears. 16 (Genesee, 1987)

For Spanish home language/bilingual students, there is a lag in English reading skills in the early years of a DLI program, but students do catch up to their Englishspeaking peers around Grades 5 or 6. Spanish home language/bilingual students in DLI programs do the same or better in their academic subjects as similar students in English-only programs in the long run. 17 What makes the difference? continued learning in Spanish in school

ongoing use of Spanish in the home 18 Academic Achievement In general, by middle school, both English home language and Spanish home language/bilingual students do as well as or better on standardized tests given in English (Math, Reading, Language Arts) than their peers in English-only classrooms. Pickit

19 (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2014) The Road to Academic Achievement pixshark Read each bump in the road statement. Share ideas you have for responding to these bumps. 20 1 Pixabay.com Remind your child just how special it is to be reading in another Inlanguage.

2nd grade, youchild might begin to worry thatabout your not child isnt If your is feeling disheartened being yet English.book Plus, your child may

ablereading to readin a certain in English, read the see bookfriends aloud togethermuch if thatharder is possible check out the audio book the reading andor

more interesting books infrom English library. continue encourage reading inexperience. the partner language and mayBut want to beto part of that reading and show enthusiasm for the books your child can read.

21 2 Pixabay Remember that this lag is temporary. In 3rd grade, when standardized testing begins, your Also, your child is on the path to speaking, reading and childs test scores may be lower than expected. writing in two languages, reaping many benefits along the way that are not measured on a standardized test. 22 Bilingualism and Biliteracy Openclipart English language learning

ALL DLI students do as well as or better in English than similar students schooled only in English why? The DLI program supports English development. Students have ongoing support for the development of English in the community (and, for some, at home). 23 (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2014) Bilingualism and Biliteracy English language learning Spanish home language/bilingual students are surrounded by their second language English and are highly motivated to use it outside of the classroom. But they need many years of formal

instruction to acquire English proficiency, especially in terms of academic language. 24 (Lindholm-Leary, 2001) Bilingualism and Biliteracy Spanish language learning ALL students in DLI programs develop proficiency in Spanish Spanish home language/bilingual students develop higher levels of Spanish than English home language students but their level of Spanish depends on:

the continued use of Spanish in the home; highly developed academic language in Spanish through a rigorous DLI curriculum. Pickit Google images (Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2014) 25 Bilingualism and Biliteracy Among the Top Ten Research Findings on Two-Way Spanish Immersion Programs: 1) By fifth or sixth grade, almost all Spanish home language/bilingual students who had attended a two-way immersion program since kindergarten or first grade were rated as proficient in both languages. 2) Almost all of the students with a two-way Spanish immersion

background who took the Spanish Advanced Placement test in grade 10 scored high enough for Advanced Placement credit. 26 (Lindholm-Leary, 2007) Bilingualism and Biliteracy Spanish language learning English home language DLI students develop stronger proficiency in Spanish than students who study Spanish traditionally. They achieve high functional levels of proficiency but their Spanish often lacks grammatical accuracy;

their vocabulary tends to be limited. Google images 27 (Center for Applied Second Language Studies, 2013 Lindholm-Leary & Genesee, 2014) Bilingualism and Biliteracy Spanish language learning Pixabay English home language students need to be given many opportunities to use Spanish outside of the classroom and beyond grade 12 if they are to reach advanced levels of proficiency.

28 (Genesee, 2007) The Road to Bilingualism & Biliteracy pixshark Read each bump in the road statement. Share ideas you have for responding to these bumps. 29

3 Pixabay Children oftenwhen feel itsthe notcontent fair thatbecomes they havemuch to work so much In 5th grade, more harder thanand

their non-DLIyour friends. And as a parent, complex difficult, child might get veryyou will probably feel bad more.feel Acknowledge discouraged andyou youcant

willhelp perhaps helpless, your childs feelings as well as your own, but dont let them especially if you dont speak the language of instruction. overpower you. The struggle is worth it! 30 4 The road to bilingualism and biliteracy is a long one. At the endneed of elementary, comesin time tolanguages move into

Students to continuewhen theiritstudies both middle school, your child may want to quit theresearch DLI program through high school and even beyond. Also, is and go

to middle school in English only. You may students even be clear that DLI education offers Spanish-speaking ready to shot give up! the best at maintaining their home language and developing high levels of English proficiency.

31 Cultural Competence Openclipart In a DLI program, partner language and culture are intertwined and are both highly valued. Park Spanish Immersion Students learn to understand, communicate with, and effectively interact with people both in English and in the partner language. Pickit 32 (Australian Childrens Education and Care Quality Authority, 2014 )

Cultural Competence Some research findings: 1. Two-way immersion students value having classmates from a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Pickit 2. These positive attitudes persist after they leave the program. 33 (Feinauer & Howard, 2014) Cultural Competence 3. Positive cross-cultural attitudes are frequently more common among DLI students than among

students in other types of programs. Pickit Getty Images 4. Partner language students say 2 things are central to their identity: attending a two-way immersion program the opportunities two-way immersion gives them for extended home language and literacy development. 34 (Feinauer & Howard, 2014) Cultural Competence Learning a language without the cultural framework in which it exists is like

cooking ethnic food without the spices of the region. You simply will remove all of the flavor from the language. 35 (Zart, 2012) The Road to Cultural Competence pixshark Read the bump in the road statement. Share ideas you have for responding to this bump.

36 5 Research shows that all DLI children regardless of home In 4th grade, many children begin to assert their identity language prefer to use English, and that preference and have as a strong desire to in (e.g., with U.S./Englishincreases they advance in fit grades

Ballinger & Lyster, 2011; speaking culture. They might not want to speak Spanish Freeman, 1998; Hernndez, 2015; Potowski, 2004). Its your job to remind anymore. This true of forbilingualism all learners.and to offer your child of theisvalue encouragement, praise, and support. 37 38 Los estudiantes que hablan ingls pueden experimentar

un __________ en sus habilidades de lectura y escritura en ingls. English home language students may experience a __________ in English reading and writing skills. 39 __________ intentionally brings together children from two language groups English home language and those who speak the partner language (e.g., Spanish). __________ rene intencionalmente a nios de dos grupos lingsticos: el idioma del hogar en ingls y aquellos que hablan el idioma asociado (e.g., espaol). 40 Para los estudiantes hispanohablantes/bilinges, su nivel

del espaol depende de el uso constante del espaol __________. For Spanish speakers and bilinguals, their level of Spanish depends on the continued use of Spanish __________. 41 A __________ program is designed for learners whose home language is English. Un programa de __________est diseado para alumnos cuyo idioma materno es el ingls. 42 La investigacin muestra que todos los nios de DLI independientemente del idioma que se hable en casa prefieren usar __________.

Research shows that all DLI children regardless of home language prefer to use __________. 43 El primer objetivo de la Educacin DLI: __________ The first goal of DLI Education: __________ 44 The __________ of English-speaking students tends to be limited. El __________ de los estudiantes anglohablantes tiende a ser limitado. 45

Los programas __________sirven a grupos minoritarios que tienen idioma y antecedentes culturales similares, por ejemplo, un grupo de alumnos que hablan espaol en casa. __________ programs serve language learners with similar language and cultural backgrounds, for example, a group of students who speak Spanish at home. 46 In the DLI classroom, partner __________ are intertwined and are both highly valued. En el aula DLI, __________ estn entrelazados y se valoran mucho los dos. 47

El segundo objetivo de la Educacin DLI: __________ The second goal of DLI Education: __________ 48 Spanish home language/bilingual students catch up to their English-speaking peers around __________ grade. Los estudiantes hispanohablantes o bilinges alcanzan a sus compaeros de habla inglesa alrededor del __________grado. 49 El tercero objetivo de la Educacin DLI: __________ The third goal of DLI Education: __________ 50

__________ programs are designed to revitalize endangered indigenous or native - cultures and languages. Los programas de __________ estn diseados para revitalizar culturas e idiomas indgenas o nativas en peligro de desaparecer. 51 Los estudiantes hispanohablantes/ bilinges necesitan mucho apoyo en el desarrollo del ingls __________. Spanish home language/bilingual students need many years of formal instruction to acquire English proficiency, especially in terms of __________ language. 52

English home language students need to be given many opportunities to use Spanish outside of the classroom and beyond __________. Los hablantes de ingls necesitan tener muchas oportunidades para utilizar el espaol fuera del aula y ms all del __________. 53 Las __________ positivas son, con frecuencia, ms comunes entre estudiantes de DLI. Positive __________ are frequently more common among DLI students. 54 55

Key Features of DLI 50% or more of partner language instruction (Spanish) through the elementary years. High status of partner language and culture in the classroom and in the school community. Fairly equal numbers of two groups of students are recommended: English-speakers and speakers of a partner language, such as Spanish. (Christian, 2011; Fortune & Tedick, 2008; Hamayan, Genesee & Cloud, 2013) 56 Key Features of DLI American Institutes for Research

An integrated language and content model, which provides a wide variety of contexts in which to use the target language. 57 (Christian, 2011; Fortune & Tedick, 2008; Hamayan, Genesee & Cloud, 2013) Key Features of DLI Core subject (math, science, social studies) and literacy instruction in both languages for all learners. Pickit Integration of English-speaking and Spanishspeaking language learners for all instruction. 58 (Christian, 2011; Fortune & Tedick, 2008; Hamayan, Genesee & Cloud, 2013)

Key Features of DLI Instruction in the same core subjects as in the other schools in the district: mathematics, language arts, science, and social studies. Pickit Instruction based on national and state standards and district curricula. 59 (Christian, 2011; Fortune & Tedick, 2008; Hamayan, Genesee & Cloud, 2013) Key Features of DLI Clear and sustained separation of languages during instructional time. 60

(Christian, 2011; Fortune & Tedick, 2008; Hamayan, Genesee & Cloud, 2013) Tic-Tac-Toe! What do you know? 1. Place your cards face down to form a grid, with the X/O wild card in the middle. 2. Turn over one card at a time and read the statement. Together, the team decides if the statement is true or false. 3. If it is true, place an O on the card. If it is false, place an X.

4. If you get 3 in a row, call out Tic-Tac-Toe! but continue filling in your grid. 61 In a two-way DLI program, all learners are partner language speakers (Spanish). DLI students receive instruction in the same core subjects as do English-only students. 1

2 In a two-way DLI program, students are separated by their home language for instruction. In a DLI program, at least 50% of instruction is in the partner language (Spanish). 3 4 62

In the DLI classroom, language and culture are intertwined. Teachers use both languages during any given lesson. 5 6 Once English begins, the majority culture (English) is dominant in the classroom.

DLI students must meet state standards. 7 8 8 63 Please complete the short questionnaire to help us to see what you learned in these workshops and how we can improve them.

64 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success We thank you for coming tonight! 65 USDE Grant: Dual Language and Immersion Pathways to English Learner Success References American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). (2015). Oral proficiency levels in the workplace. Retrieved from https://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/actfl-proficiency-guidelines-2012. Australian Childrens Education and Care Quality Authority (ACECQA). (2014). What does it mean to be culturally competent? Retrieved from https://wehearyou.acecqa.gov.au/2014/07/10/what-does-it-mean-to-be-culturally-competent/. Center for Applied Linguistics. (2005). The two-way immersion toolkit. Retrieved from http://www.cal.org/twi/. Center for Applied Second Language Studies. (2013). What levels of proficiency do immersion students achieve? Retrieved from https://casls.uoregon.edu/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/tenquestions/TBQImmersionStudentProficiencyRevised.pdf.

Christian, D. (2011). Dual language education. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Vol. II (pp. 320). NY: Routledge. Feinauer, E., & Howard, E.R. (2014). Attending to the third goal: Cross-cultural competence and identity development in two-way immersion programs. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 257272. Fortune, T.W., & Tedick, D.J. (2008). One-way, two-way, and indigenous immersion: A call for cross-fertilization In T. W. Fortune, & D. J. Tedick (Eds.). Pathways to multilingualism: Evolving perspectives on immersion education. (pp. 321). Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters, Ltd. Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House. Genesee, F. (2007). Top ten most consistent findings from research on foreign language immersion. The ACIE Newsletter, 10(3), 7 & 10. Hamayan, E., Genesee, F., & Cloud, N. (2013). Dual language instruction from A to Z. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 66 References Howard, E.R., Olague, N., & Rogers, D. (2003). The dual language program planner: A guide for designing and implementing dual language programs (p. 3). Washington, DC & Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence. Lindholm-Leary, K.J. (2001). Dual language education. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Lindholm-Leary, K.J. (2007). Top ten research findings on minority language learners in two-way immersion programs. The ACIE Newsletter,

10(3), 9 & 12. Lindholm-Leary, K.J., & Genesee, F. (2014). Student outcomes in one-way, two-way, and indigenous language immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 165180. Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence, University of California-Santa Cruz. Retrieved from http://cmmr.usc.edu/CollierThomasComplete.pdf. Thomas, W.P., & Collier, V.P. (2012). Dual language education for a transformed world. Albuquerque, NM: Dual Language Education of New Mexico and Fuente Press. Zart, B. (2012). The importance of culture in language learning. Retrieved from https://billzart.wordpress.com/2012/03/04/the-importance-of-culture-in-language-learning/. 67 Contributors University of Minnesota:

Amanda Lea (Eastern Carver County) Maureen Curran-Dorsano Cathy Camarena (St. Paul) Diane J. Tedick

Teresa Chavez (Roseville) Corinne Mathieu Carolina DuFault (Risen Christ) Tara W. Fortune (UMN) Special thanks to our translators:

Leticia Guadarrama (Minneapolis) Anselmo C. Casteln Laura Hofer (Richfield) SeePha Vang

Bounthavy Kiatoukaysy (St. Paul) Bounthavy Kiatoukaysy Corina Pastrana (Minneapolis) Melissa Richards de Campaa (St. Paul) and to our external consultant,

Anita Sasse (Northfield) Kate Trexel (UMN) Edward M. Olivos University of Oregon Megan Unger (Minneapolis) 68

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