Drug Slides Ch. 3

Introduction to Drugs and Society Chapter 1 Key Concerns What constitutes a drug? What are the most commonly abused drugs? What are designer drugs? How widespread is drug use? What is the extent and frequency of drug use in our society? What are the current statistics and trends in drug use?

Key Concerns (continued) What types of drug users exist? How does the media influence drug use? What attracts people to drug use? When does drug use lead to drug dependence? When does drug addiction occur? What are the costs of drug addiction to society? What can be gained by learning about the complexity of drug use and abuse?

Drug Use Causes Three Major Simultaneous Changes in the User 1. The social and psychological rewards from the effects of the drug high results in the illusion of temporary satisfaction and postponement of social pressures and anxieties leading to a superficial belief that problems and/or concerns are non-problematic. 2. Pharmacologically, the nonmedical use of most drugs, alters body chemistry largely by interfering with (affecting) its proper (homeostatic) functioning. Drugs enhance, slow down, or distort the reception and transmission of reality. 3. Using a particular drug may satisfy an inborn or genetically programmed need or desire.

Drug Use Drug users are found in all occupations and professions, at all income and social class levels, and in all age groups. No one is immune to drug use, which often leads to drug dependence. Thus, drug use is an equal-opportunity affliction. Jaime Duplass/ShutterStock, Inc.

Four Principle Factors That Affect Drug Use Biological, Genetic, and Pharmacological Factors: Substance abuse and addiction involve biological and genetic factors. The pharmacology of drug use focuses on how the ingredients of a particular drug affect the body and the nervous system, and in turn, a persons experience with a particular drug. Cultural Factors: How do societal views, determined by custom and tradition, affect our initial approach to and use of the drug? Social Factors: What are the specific reasons why a drug is taken (e.g., curing an illness, self-medicating, escape from reality, peer pressure, family upbringing, membership in drug-abusing

subcultures)? Contextual Factors: How do physical surroundings (rock concerts, bars, nightclubs, or fraternity and sorority parties) affect the amount of drug use? The Dimensions of Drug Abuse Q: What is a drug? A: Any substance that modifies (enhances, inhibits, or distorts) mind and/or body functioning Q: What is a psychoactive drug? A: Drug compounds (substances) that affect the central nervous system and/or alter

consciousness and/or perceptions and behavior. Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs are classified as either: Licit (Legal): Examples may include coffee, tea, alcohol, tobacco, and over-the-counter drugs. Illicit (Illegal): Examples may include marijuana, cocaine, and LSD.

Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Photographed by Kimberly Potvin Discussion Give an example of a person you know (DO NOT USE THEIR NAME) who uses drugs by how they may be effected by: 1) Biological Factors 2) Social Factors 3) Contextual Factors

Major Types of Commonly Abused Drugs - Overview Alcohol (ethanol) Nicotine (all forms of tobacco) Prescription drugs (many drugs that are prescribed by a physician) Stimulants Major stimulants: amphetamines, cocaine, and crack Minor stimulants: nicotine, caffeine, tea, and chocolate

Hallucinogens/psychedelics: LSD, mescaline, peyote, and psilocybin (magic mushrooms) Major Types of Commonly Abused Drugs - Overview (continued) Depressants: barbiturates, benzodiazepines, valium, and alcohol Bath salts (a designer drug) Cannabis: marijuana and hashish Anabolic steroids: a synthetic form of the male hormone

testosterone Inhalants/organic solvents: inhalants like gasoline, model glue, paint thinner, certain foods, herbs, and vitamins Narcotics/opiates: opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin Figure 1.1 Cigarette smoking and exposure. Data from Mokdad, A. H., J. S. Marks, D.F. Stroup, and J. L. Gerberding. Actual Causes of Death in the United States, 2000. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 291 (10 March 2004):1238-1245; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking and Tobacco Use: Tobacco-Related Mortality. Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 18 August 2015a. Available http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/ tobacco_related_mortality/ ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Fact Sheets Alcohol Use and Your Health. Atlanta, GA: U. S. Department of

Health and Human Services, 4 February 2015b. Available http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/alcohol-use.htm; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2013 Mortality Multiple Cause Micro-Data Files. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2014. Seven Commonly Used Drug Terms (see Table 1.2, p 9, Text Read Terms in Class) 1) Gateway Drugs Why Nicotine is a Gateway Drug 2) Medicines 3) Prescription Medicines 4) OTC (over-the-counter) Drugs 5) Drug Misuse

6) Drug Abuse 7) Drug Addiction Designer Drugs/Synthetic Drugs or Synthetic Opioids Structural analogs are drugs that result from altered chemical structures of current illicit drugs. It involves modifying the basic molecular skeleton of a compound to form a new molecular species. Designer Drugs /Synthetic Drugs or Synthetic Opioids - New categories of hybrid drugs like Ecstasy and Demerol. - These relatively recent types of drugs are created as

structural analogs of substances already classified under the Controlled Substances Act. Gateway Drugs Gateway drugs are types of commonly used drugs that are believed to lead to using other more powerful mind-altering and addictive drugs, such as hallucinogens, cocaine, crack, and heroin. Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are the most commonly used gateway drugs.

Discussion Why do you think Americans use so many legal, BUT gateway drugs? (Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are the most commonly used gateway drugs.) Drug Misuse

Drug misuse is the unintentional or inappropriate use of prescribed or over-the-counter (OTC) types of drugs. Photos.com Six Examples of Drug Misuse Taking more drugs than prescribed Using OTC or psychoactive drugs in excess without medical supervision Mixing drugs with alcohol or other types of drugs Using old medicines to self-treat new symptoms of an illness

Discontinuing prescribed drugs at will and/or against physicians orders Administering prescribed drugs to a family member without medical consultation and supervision Dimensions of Drug Abuse Drug abuse is also known as chemical or substance abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation,

perceived necessity, or convenience. Drug abuse refers to a more intense misuse of drugsoften to the point of addiction. Also known as chemical or substance abuse. Erich Goodes Four Types of Drug Use Legal instrumental use: Taking prescribed drugs or OTC drugs to relieve or treat mental or physical symptoms

Legal recreational use: Using licit drugs like tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine to achieve a certain mental state Illegal instrumental use: Taking nonprescribed drugs to achieve a task or goal Illegal recreational use: Taking illicit drugs for fun or pleasure Drug Use: Statistics and Trends Social Drugs

$90 billion for alcohol $51.9 billion for cigarettes $2 billion for cigars, chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, and snuff $5.7 billion for coffee, teas, and cocoa Prescription Drugs $950 billion worldwide in 2012. $237.5 billion in the United States Tischenko Irena/ShutterStock, Inc.

Drug Use: Statistics and Trends OTC Drugs $30.8 billion Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs In 2014, 52.0 million Americans age 12 or older had used prescription-type drugs non-medically at least once in their lifetime.

Miscellaneous Drugs Examples include inhalants, nutmeg, and morning glory seeds Extent of use cannot be verified Tischenko Irena/ShutterStock, Inc. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2014

82.1% (217.8 million) Americans used alcohol during their lifetime 61.0% (161.8 million) Americans used cigarettes 49.2% (130.3 million) Americans used any illicit drug(s)

Data from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Figure 1.0.2: Percentage of U.S. residents aged 12 or older reporting lifetime use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs: 2014. Data from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015.

Figure 1.0.3: Past-month use of selected illicit drugs among persons aged 12 or older: 2014. Data from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 2014 Most commonly used illicit drugs (Lifetime Use):

117.2 million (44.2%) used marijuana/hashish 54.4 million (20.5%) used nonmedical psychotherapeutics, such as pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, or sedatives (does not include OTC drugs) 39.2 million (14.8%) used cocaine 39.6 million (15.0%) used hallucinogens 36.1 million (13.6%) used pain relievers Drug Use: Additional Findings

Age Patterns: 1825 age category reports the most illicit drug use Racial and Ethnic Differences: (rates of use, past month, 2014) Two or more races: 13.5% American Indian/Alaska Natives: 13.4% Black/African American: 12.4% Whites: 10.4% Hispanic or Latino: 8.9% Asians: 4.1%

Figure 1.6 Percentage of past-month illicit drug use among persons aged 12 or older, by age: 2013 and 2014 Figure 1.0.4: Past-month nonmedical use of types of psychotherapeutic drugs (pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives) among persons aged 12 or older: 20052014 Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015.

Figure 1.0.7: Past-month illicit drug use among persons age 12 or older, by race/ethnicity: 2014 Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Opioid and Pain Killer Stats (not in text)

Of the 20.5 million Americans 12 or older that had a substance use disorder in 2015, two million had a substance use disorder involving prescription pain relievers and 591,000 had a substance use disorder involving heroin Drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the US, with 52,404 lethal drug overdoses in 2015. Opioid addiction is driving this epidemic, with 20,101 overdose deaths related to

prescription pain relievers, and 12,990 overdose deaths related to heroin in 2015 Figure 1.0.5: Nonmedical use of pain relievers in the past year among persons aged 12 or older, by state: Percentages, annual averages based on 2013 and 2014. Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Drug Use: Additional Findings

Gender Males were more likely than females among persons age 12 or older to be current illicit drug users (11.5% vs. 7.3%). The rate of past-month marijuana use was about twice as high for males as that for females (7.9% vs. 6.2%). Pregnant Women Pregnant women are less likely to use drugs

than similar age women who are not pregnant. Drug Use: Additional Findings Education: College graduates (6.7%) had the lowest rate of current illicit drug use, while those who did not complete high school (11.%) had the highest use of illicit drugs. Employment: Unemployed persons (18.7%) have a greater tendency to use more illicit-types of drugs than people gainfully employed (10.6% full-time and 13.2% part-time workers).

Drug Use: Additional Findings Criminal Justice: In 2004, 32% of state prisoners and 26% of federal prisoners reported that they had committed their offenses while under the influence of drugs (see Table 1.5 next slide). Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) reports that at the time of arrest, 40% of arrestees tested positive for the presence of multiple drugs.

Approximately 40% tested positive for marijuana, 30% tested positive for cocaine, and 20% tested positive for crack. (National Institute of Justice [NIJ] 2009) @ time of arrest Three Types of Drug Users Experimenters: Begin using drugs largely because of peer pressure and curiosity, and they confine their use to recreational settings. Compulsive users: Devote

considerable time and energy into getting high, talk incessantly (sometimes exclusively) about drug use, and become connoisseurs of street drugs. Floaters or chippers: Focus more on using other peoples drugs without maintaining as much of a personal supply. Media Influence on Drug Use

Each year, the alcohol industry spends more than $3.45 billion on advertising (television, radio, print, and outdoor ads). (FTC 2015) The advertising budget for Budweiser beer exceeds

the entire budget for research on alcoholism and alcohol abusers. Drug companies spent $232 million a year on televised commercials for Viagra, Claritin, Allegra, and other drugs. In 2014, drug makers spent $5.5 billion marketing prescription drugs (up from $3.5 billion in 2012). Teens viewing photos of inebriated friends posted on social media, such as Facebook, for example, are four times more likely to have used marijuana and three times more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco.

Why Are People Attracted to Drugs? People use drugs as a means to temporarily: Experience pleasure or heighten good feelings Relieve stress, tension, or anxiety Forget ones problems and avoid or postpone worries Relax after a tension-filled day of work Fit in with peers or as a rite of passage Enhance religious or mystical experiences Relieve pain and some symptoms of illness Adolescents: who is more likely

to use licit and illicit drugs? See Section Signs and Symptoms, p. 36-37, text When Does Use Lead to Abuse? The amount of drug taken does not necessarily determine abuse. The motive for taking the drug is the most important factor in determining presence of abuse. Initial drug abuse symptoms include:

Excessive use Constant preoccupation about the availability and supply of the drug Refusal to admit excessive use Reliance on the drug Drug Dependence Both physical and psychological factors precipitate drug dependence: Physical dependence refers to the need to continue taking the drug to avoid withdrawal symptoms, which often include

feelings of discomfort and illness. Psychological dependence refers to the need that a user may mentally feel about continuing the use of a drug to experience its effects and/or relieve withdrawal symptoms. Stages of Drug Dependence Relief: Satisfaction from negative feelings in using the drug Increased Use: Involves taking greater

quantities of the drug Preoccupation: Consists of a constant concern with the substance Dependency: A synonym for addiction; when more of the drug is sought despite the presence of physical symptoms Withdrawal: The physical and/or psychological effects from not using the drug Figure 1.0.8: Stages of drug dependence.

Costs of Drug Use to Society Illnesses Shortened lifespans Marital and family strife Fetal alcohol syndrome Criminalistic behavior Drugs in the workplace/disruption of careers and professions Cost of assistance programs (e.g., Employee Assistance Programs [EAPs])

Costs of Drug Use to Society: Statistics The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimates that the typical narcotic habit costs $150/day. A heroin addict must steal three to five times the actual cost of the drugs to maintain a habitabout $160,000 per year. Three out of four prostitutes in major cities have a serious drug dependency.

Drugs, Crime, and Violence Regarding the connection between drug use and crime, the following findings can be summarized: Drug users in comparison to nondrug users are more likely to commit crimes. 2. A high percentage of arrestees are often under the influence of a drug while committing crimes. 3. A high percentage of drug users arrested for drug use and violence are more likely to be under the influence of alcohol and/or stimulant-types of drugs such as cocaine, crack, and methamphetamines.

1. Drugs in the Workplace In the United States, alcohol and drug use and their related problems costs employers and tax payers billions of dollars per year. The National Household surveys found significant drug use in the workplace with

64.3% of full-time workers reported alcohol use (7% to 9% drinking while working) and 6.4% reported marijuana use within the past month. (SAMHSA 2012) Drugs in the Workplace Among the 19 major industry categories, the highest rates of pastmonth illicit drug use among full-time workers ages 18 to 64 were found in accommodations and food services (19.1%), construction (11.6%), and arts,

entertainment, and recreation (13.7%); (see Figure 1.10). The industry categories with the lowest rates of past month illicit drug use were mining (5.0%), educational services (4.8%), and public administration (4.3%). Figure 1.0.9A: Panel A shows the percentages of past-month illicit drug use among persons aged 18 or older by employment status in 2013 and 2014. Panel B shows the numbers in millions of past-month illicit drug users based on employment status.

Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Figure 1.0.9B: Panel A shows the percentages of past-month illicit drug use among persons aged 18 or older by employment status in 2013 and 2014. Panel B shows the numbers in millions of past-month illicit drug users based on employment status. Reproduced from Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality (CBHSQ). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. NSDUH Series H-50, HHS Publication No. (SMA) 15-4927. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015. Figure 1.0.10: Illicit drug use by industry category: Past-month illicit drug use among fulltime workers aged 18 to 64: 20112012, combined. Reproduced from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Report.

Worker Substance Use, by Industry Category. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies, 24 March 2012. Drug Testing Is used to identify those who may be using drugs Today, drug testing can include the following: urine, breath, hair, oral fluids (saliva or oral fluids collected from the mouth), and sweat. (U.S. Department of Labor 2016) Duration of Detection /Cut-Offs for Urine Analysis: Amphetamines: 2472 hours Cocaine/metabolite: 2472 hours Opiates: 2472 hours

PCP: 2496 hours THC/metabolite: 24 hours3 weeks (depends on frequency of use) Note: Hair analysis 1 to 3 months for all drugs listed above Drug Testing Approximately 80% of large companies, 60% of medium companies, and 26% of small companies drug test.

In large, medium, and small companies, over 90% use urine analysis, less than 20% use blood analysis, and less than 6% use hair analysis. Most drug-using youth do not cease drug use when they begin working.

The following drugs that are detectable differ in the length of time they are detectable (U.S. Department of Labor 2016):

Alcohol: 1 oz. for 1.5 hours Amphetamines: 48 hours Barbiturates: 2 to 10 days Benzodiazepines: 2 to 3 weeks Cocaine: 2 to 10 days Heroin metabolites: Less than 1 day Morphine: 2 to 3 days LSD: 8 hours Marijuana: Casual use, 3 to 4 days; chronic use, several weeks

Methamphetamine: 2 to 3 days Methadone: 2 to 3 days PCP: 1 week Holistic Self-Awareness Approach Holistic philosophy advocates that the mind, body, and spirit work best when they are drug-free.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Adaptive Navigation Support - Donald Bren School of ...

    Adaptive Navigation Support - Donald Bren School of ...

    Slide 4 History behind adaptive navigation support Adaptation Technologies Direct Guidance Slide 8 Direct Guidance Link Ordering (Adaptive Sorting) Link Ordering Link Hiding Slide 13 Link Hiding Link Annotation Slide 16 Link Generation Slide 18 Link Generation vs. Web Recommender...
  • Energy Project Viability - Nautilus Institute for Security ...

    Energy Project Viability - Nautilus Institute for Security ...

    Nautilus Institute & RMIT University Sydney Myer Asia Centre, University of Melbourne 21-22 November 2008 Presentation Outline Indonesia Energy System Energy Security and Sustainable Development Indonesia and the Region Final Energy Consumption 2006 Primary Energy Mix Energy Infrastructure ...
  • Chapter 18 - Multiple Regression

    Chapter 18 - Multiple Regression

    Regression analysis is used to predict the value of one variable (the . dependent variable) on the basis of other variables (the . independent variables). Dependent variable: denoted . Y. Independent variables: denoted . X. 1, X. 2, …, X....
  • Embedded System BSP - NPTU

    Embedded System BSP - NPTU

    Ray-tracing (1/4) Cast rays from the eye point the same way as ray casting. Builds the image pixel by pixel, one at a time. Cast additional rays from the hit point to determine the pixel color
  • A SUPERVISED CONSUMPTION SITE FOR BARRIE Simcoe Muskoka

    A SUPERVISED CONSUMPTION SITE FOR BARRIE Simcoe Muskoka

    Report . of the Toronto and Ottawa Supervised Consumption Assessment Study (TOSCA Study), April 11, 2012. Physical site criteria: Adequate space for SCS services and meets ministry design standards. Meets municipal bylaws and provincial regulations for accessibility. Meets physical safety...
  • Working with MHS in HIP 2.0 0215.MA.O.PP 3/15

    Working with MHS in HIP 2.0 0215.MA.O.PP 3/15

    MHS offers two educational care management programs for MHS members who are pregnant called Start Smart for Your Baby and MHS Special Deliveries. These programs are designed to match a pregnant member with an OB Nurse Care Manager, who can...
  • Remember those wicked awesome titles we've been working on?

    Remember those wicked awesome titles we've been working on?

    Consider WOKs or other TOK terms and how they function or are affected in your Real Life Situation. Provide analysis from you as a knower. Research linked to KQ. Consider implications (perhaps in other AOKs) Make Connections.
  • NAG Flash Fire DAFW Case (7 January 2010)

    NAG Flash Fire DAFW Case (7 January 2010)

    Flash Fire DAFW Case (7 January 2010) What happened? BP employee was conducting routine checks and trouble shooting the well head compressor. The compressor skid had been winterized which included the installation of tarps on 2 sides of the unit...