Digital convergence and collaboration culture: Publishing in ...

Digital convergence and collaboration culture: Publishing in the context of the wider creative industries. Frania Hall University of the Arts, London, London College of Communication Alarming macro-trends Bhaskar, (2013) The Content Machine

The Media and Content Industries. are among the industries that have been first and heavily hit by the digital shift Simon and Bogdanowicz, (2012) JRC Policy Brief Changing Industry

Technology changes production and product New intermediaries

Prosumers direct to market Blurring boundaries, format shifts Consumer behaviour purchasing patterns and expectation of free Proliferation of business models & pioneers Media Convergence is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the

relationship between existing technologies industries, markets, genres and audiences. Convergence alters the logic by which media companies operate and by which media consumers process news and entertainment. Jenkins (2008) Convergence Culture. This presentation

Context for my research the wider creative industries Agenda for my research the nature and style of collaboration within publishing. Collaboration here focusing on digital product development. Publishing through the lens of creative

industry thinking 1. 2. 3. 4. 4 models of creative industries Characteristics of creative industries

Similar challenges Wider creative industry theory, economics and networks 5. Studying collaborations similarities and differences 6. What the research will do The publishing value chain has remained

relatively consistent since the invention of the printing press The traditional value chainis being disrupted and disintermediated at every stage Ray Murray and Squires (2013) Technological advance in publishing has centred around solving supply Nash (2010)

In a publishing version of if we build it they will come publishers understand that it is no longer possible, or sensible to continue with business as usual Tian and Martin (2011) Lacking definition leave publishers horribly exposed to the whims of history and

technology Bhaskar, (2013) The Content Machine A business about reading and writing Stephen Page, CEO, Faber (2011) Its still a book business and it needs to become a reader business Michael Calder (quoted by Sara Lloyd 2009) Reader-centred business Healy (2011)

We recognize that digital books and journals at best substitute revenues previously derived from print In order to drive growth we need to go beyond the two dimensional experience of a digital or standard ebook Stephen Smith, CEO Wiley, (2013)

The blurring of roles in the book industry looks set to continue Healy 2011 Why look at the wider context? Creative industries face similar challenges in digital age Developing and sharing knowledge from these

other industries Collaboration appears to be becoming wider Understand position and find allies to transform effectively Model 1 DCMS Individual creativity

Wealth creation opportunities Publishing is a creative content producer Ad hoc Flew, (2013) Model 2 Concentric Circles, Throsby, (2008) Creativity of created product at the centre Production and distribution further out

Publishing in an outer layer Centrality of cultural value Flew (2013) Model 3 WIPO The IP based model Publishing central Intellectual property as the embodiment of

creativity UNCTAD, (2010) Model 4 Symbolic texts Hesmondhalgh, (2013) Cultural texts at the centre Including those that are engaged in production and circulation of those texts Publishing central

Directly involved in production of social meaning Flew (2013) Issues with models Separation of activities Going wider - creativity in other industries The art-commerce relationship The problems of drawing lines.

The creative industries sit on the cusp of significant transformation. Banks and OConnor , (2009) Characteristics of creative industries Issues around value, cultural production and symbolic texts The art/commerce debate/paradox

Distinctive market behaviours Work/experience of labour/working conditions Management and organisational practices Challenges faced by all

Copyright Consumer behaviour Discoverability

Prosumer New competitor landscape The democracy of the internet The successful organisation flexible enough to change their means as rapidly as goals change, under the impact of fast cultural, technological and institutional change; and to

innovate as innovation becomes the key competitive weapon Cassells, (2010) The Rise of the Network Society In most industries, including the creative sector, innovation is key to gaining competitive advantage and enhancing growth prospects. Bakhshi and Throsby, (2009)

Where innovation is critical, the organisational ability to increase its sources from all forms of knowledge becomes the foundation of the innovative firm Cassells (2010) The Rise of the Network Enterprise The phenomenon of new styles of collaboration

New because: Broader in scope (cross creative industries)

Entrepreneurial and experimental in vision Structurally different: partnership, shared outcomes, measurement Study these collaborations to ascertain: If they are different And if they are, do they reflect a more fundamental change in structure of the

industry Along the way consider: Network theory Innovation theory Collaborations around renewal Explorative: renew their own knowledge levels Entrepreneurial: promote invention and

development Partnerships that are: Future oriented and flourish in environments with an abundance of entrepreneurial behaviour, creativity and innovative strength Kaats and Opheij (2014) Research approach

Multiple cases approach (6) Cases when exploring context and phenomenon Variety of companies in size and publishing sector Each case stands alone then look for replication in other cases Mixed methods approach for each case Design tests for validity

Feedback loop as develop next case to refine theory Underlying processes emerge Multiple relativist opinions cross-case conclusions Theoretical frameworks Specific characteristics of collaboration within creative industries Lens of collaboration Innovation theory

Network theory Identity and distributed creativity theory To explore

Shared ambition How everyones interests can be appropriately served

How working relations are developed, Organisational behaviour as they plan it out Behaviour and sensemaking while in action. What makes a successful collaboration? How far are they repeatable? How far are they flexible? Do they genuinely reflect an industry attempting to be more nimble around experimentation?

From that will assess: Are the collaborations definitely different/new? If so how? What is the fit with the other creative industries? Is this significant enough to reflect structural

change? The results If the results show that there isnt significant difference in the collaborations, given the context, should there not be more movement towards cross-sector collaboration?

If the results show there is change.. This may indicate not just that it is a reflection of structural change but a driver? What wider economic/organisational effects might it have? And what about the changing consumer.? Do they notice (or need to)? Can we get ahead of the curve?

About similarities between industries But also about differences - for learning and experimentation A need to form more partnerships with sister creative industries Stephen Page, CEO, Faber (2011)

The model for tomorrow is try everything, make mistakes, fail, fail better Neil Gaiman, Author (2013). Questions?

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