Diapositive 1 - the Conference Exchange

Geological Society of America 2012 Annual Meeting - November 4-7 , 2012, Charlotte, North Carolina

Environmental Impact of Quarrying in the Province of Sidi Bennour (Doukkala, Morocco)
Salma TIFRATINE , Fouad AMRAOUI , and Toufik REMMAL
Faculty of Sciences, University Hassan II Casablanca, Laboratory of Geosciences Applied to Urban Development Engineering (G.A.I.A)
PB .5366 Maarif- Casablanca 20100 Morocco. E-mail: [email protected]
INTRODUCTION
Recently, Morocco started boosting the construction sector
and public works with a lineup of major projects. This creates
a strong market demand for building materials, raw materials,
and natural resources including quarry products.
In the province of Sidi Bennour (Region of Doukkala), most
quarries are often used at random, and harm the
environment. Before the operation of the quarry, the decision
to operate is often taken in respect of the technical and land
boundaries, but the environmental dimension and losses
from this activity are rarely considered.

METHODOLOGY
SITE
- Physical environment
- Biological environment
- Human Environment
- Land use

Description

PROJECT
-Technical and financial aspects
- Energy resources

STONE QUARRIES OF THE PROVINCE
Calcarenite quarries :
-Cross Bedding calcarenites (Figure 4) , and alluvial calcarenite (Figure 5)
- Recrystallized calcarenites, with a very tough limestone cement;(Figure 6).
Silty Coverage

Evaluation of positive and negative impacts
Measures envisaged toward impacts

4

- Use of quieter machinery and covers for vehicles;
- Implementation of screens of trees around the site to reduce the impact of dust emissions;

5

6

Calcarenite

Recrystallized calcarenite

Sidi Bennour is a province of the region of Doukkala-Abda, it is located in the southern coastal Moroccan Meseta. It is bordered to
the north and west by the province of El Jadida, on the east by the plain of Chaouia, on the south by the hills of Mouissate, on the
southwest by Abda and southeast by the massif of Rehamna (Figure1). According to the national census of 2004, it has over 400,000
inhabitants spread over 25 municipalities (Figure 2).
ue
iq
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lt a
i
A
nt
la
n
At
a
c
n
O
a
Oc
Loualidia

2

Province d'El Jadida
Province d'El Jadida

Sidi
SidiLaatatra
Bennour
BennourLaatatra

Laghnadra
Laghnadra

Zmamra
Zmamra
Lgharbia
Lgharbia

Laagagcha
Laagagcha

Bouhmame
Bouhmame

Kridid
Kridid

Abda
Abda
00

00

10
10
Km
Km
10
10
Km
Km

Metrane
Metrane

Jabria
Jabria
M'Tal
M'Tal

Koudiat
Bni
Koudiat
Dghough
Bni
Dghough

Laamria
Laamria

Bni Tsiriss
Oulad Si
Bni Tsiriss
Bouhya
Oulad Si
Bouhya Laaounate
Laaounate

Saniat Lmechrek
Berguig
Saniat Lmechrek
Berguig

Loualidia
Oulad Sbaita
Oulad Sbaita

Bni Hilal
Bni Hilal

Tamda
Tamda

Oulad
Amrane
Oulad
Amrane

Oulad
Boussken
Oulad
Boussken
Khmis Ksiba
Khmis Ksiba

Rehamna
Rehamna

Collines des M ouissates
Collines des M ouissates

The primary basement Dark green to blue-black schist, quartzite and sandstone

3

Permian Triassic: Deposits of clays and red pelites associated with basaltic flows.
Jurassic: Continental clastic deposits are dominated by gravel and sandstone,
discordant on the Permian-Triassic.
Cretaceous: Limestone facies and marly limestones of yellow and white colors.
Pliocene: Yellow detrital limestone containing fragments of shells and which are
hidden by the silty Quaternary cover.
Quaternary: It is a continental formation called Colluviums filling.
HYDROGEOLOGY
Groundwater
-The deep aquifers: Permian-Triassic basalt layers and Neocomian
limestone. The depth is about 400 m.
-The upper aquifer: Plio-quaternary detrital limestone.

- Implementation of exhaust filters for vehicles and engines fueled with diesel;

leaks and seepage into the groundwater;
- A site development, accompanied by the addition of vegetation and tree planting, to improve aesthetics,
Alluvial calcarenite

minimize erosion and prevent rock falls;

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY OF DOUKKALA-ABDA: PROVINCE OF SIDI BENNOUR

1

- Watering pathways, planting on bare surfaces and the use of binding agents to dust;

- Machinery and transportation vehicles, materials should be kept in good working in order to prevent oil
-Implementation
-Operating
-Developpement

Inspection and monitoring program

ATTENUATION AND COMPENSATION

Piezometry
- A zone of high hydraulic gradient in the eastern border.
- A slower hydraulic gradient in the central part of the province.
- A zone of strong gradient in the western edge (Oualidia).

Marly limestone quarries :
The stone is extracted from natural
marly-limestone
assigned
to
Cenomanian (Cretaceous). It is on
the form of bands alternating with
marly-clay levels (Figures 7 and 8).
ENVIRONMENTAL DIAGNOSIS
- Uncontrolled exploitation without
phasing plan;
- Operating permits are not
accompanied by achievement plans;
- The stiff quarry faces that can reach
20m are abandoned without support
steps and the risk of landslides is high
due to the friable nature of rocks
especially with weathering;
- Flow of sewage channels in quarries
(Quarry of Ouled Chaoui) (Figure 9);
- Presence of crevasses after the end
of operation which become a settling
wastewater (Figures 10 and 11);
- Abandoned quarries without
redevelopment
or
rehabilitation
(Figure 12);

GEODATABASE
7

8

9

10

13

A monitoring program and project monitoring is mandatory
to ensure the implementation, operation, and development
to technical and environmental requirements adopted by the
assessment. In fact, to ensure this important step, ArcGis is
very useful to determine the distribution of quarries in
operation (Figure 13), and abandoned ones (Figure 14),
using an inventory which includes all the Data of the quarry
(coordinates, operating entity, commune, and extracted
materials).

14

Feature Class
- Road Networks: the network covering the entire region AbdaDoukkala, main roads
- Communes: allow the user to set different quarries in their social
and economic context. It is of great use to work on impact
assessment, and it contains a lot of information relating to the
social and demographic context (Figure 15) .

11

15

12
- Quarries: This feature class includes all careers inventoried
(Quarries in operation and abandoned quarries) (Figure 16).
- Elevation: Topography of the entire region of Abda-Doukkala is
represented by the topographic elevations with 30m resolution.
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tla

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Loualidia
n
Oc Loualidia
a
Loualidia
Oc Loualidia

THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF QUARRIES
Noise Pollution

Water Pollution

- Compressors, blasting, hammers, crushers, and the movement of
transport vehicles.
- The noise vibration that spreads through the air, is characterized by
its intensity, beyond 85 decibels (dB), presents a risk to hearing.

- Surface water: risk of contamination by oil and
lubricating oils from operations.
- Groundwater: High risk of contamination by
infiltration of runoff from the quarry.

Air Pollution
- Dust: Related to the use and transport of materials.
- Gases: vehicles and engines fueled with diesel fumes and blasting.

Biological Pollution: Dust deposited on plant
leaves inhibit photosynthesis of Flora, and Fauna is
deprived of its natural habitat.

Sidi
Sidi
Smail
Smail
Sidi
Sidi
Province d'El Jadida
Smail
Smail
Province d'El Jadida
Laaounate
Laaounate
Laaounate
Laaounate

Khmis
Khmis
Zmamra
Zmamra
Khmis
Khmis
Zmamra
Zmamra

16

Sidi
Sidi
Bennour
Bennour
Sidi
Sidi
Bennour
Bennour

Abda
Abda
Carrire
Carrire en
en exploitation
exploitation
Carrire
en exploitation
exploitation
Carrire
Carrire
abandonne
abandonne

Rehamna
Rehamna

Carrire
Carrire
abandonne
abandonne
Route
principale
principale

CONCLUSION

Route
Route
principale
Centre
urbain
urbain
Centre
Centre urbain
urbain

00
00

Collines des M ouissates
Collines des M ouissates

10
10

Km
Km
10
10
Km
Km

Since 2009, an Environmental Impact Assessment has become mandatory in Morocco, for the granting of
operating licenses because it allows to select the most appropriate alternatives, prevent pollution and use the
best methods and techniques to reduce impacts. It also improves the integration of measures designed to
eliminate or at least minimize conflicts and impacts that the operation of quarries makes .

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