Ice Wedging Water fills joints of rocks and freezes Freezing expands the water by 10% Repeated freeze and thaw cycles over the years causes rock to break
along joint Mechanical - Exfoliation Exfoliation or unloading Rock breaks off into leaves or
sheets along joints which are parallel to the ground surface Mechanical - Thermal Thermal expansion Repeated daily heating and cooling of rock
Different minerals expand and contract at different rates causing the rock to split Mechanical - Biotic
Biotic means life Weathering caused by living organisms Plant roots, digging animals, microscopic plants and animals, algae and fungi.
Mechanical Weathering What is Chemical Weathering? Breakdown of rock into smaller pieces because of change in the chemical composition of its minerals.
Chemical reactions break down the bonds holding the rocks together, causing them to fall apart. Chemical weathering occurs in all types of rock but smaller rocks are more susceptible because they have a greater amount of
surface area. Chemical Weathering Types of chemical weathering
Oxidation (oxygen) Hydrolysis (water)
Carbonation (carbon dioxide) Biotic (living organisms) Acid rain Chemical - Oxidation Oxidation - oxygen combines with
other elements in rocks to form new types of rock. Causes a rusting of the rock, often causes a color change in the rock Chemical - Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis - water combines with the substances in rocks to form new types of rock New substances are softer than the original rock types
Chemical - Carbonation Carbonation Carbon dioxide is dissolved in water making carbonic acid, which eats away at the rock Weak acid is formed when carbon dioxide in the air mixes with rain. This is the same
acid found in soft drinks. Chemical - Biotic Organisms - living organisms can cause changes in the chemistry of rock Plants lower the local pH to make it more
acidic Bacteria act as catalysts in various geochemical processes Chemical Weathering
Weathering by Water Most important agent of chemical weathering It can dissolve rock and minerals in rock Weathering by Waves Waves weather the land:
Mechanical weathering Broken down into smaller pieces Chemical weathering Dissolved in water
Weathering by Waves Weathering by Wind Wind weathers the land by mechanical means Abrasion
Very slow process Weathering by Wind Erosion
What Caused This? http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Water_erosion_below_Hay_Bluff_-_geograph.org.uk__1074175.jpg
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