Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Communities Mrs. Stahl The Deep Sea The ocean is defined by
depth All have different Characteristics Properties Ecosystems Our focus today: > 1000 m
Ocean Conveyor Belt Ocean Conveyor Belt This is the interplay of water through the worlds oceans, constant motion. Motion is caused by thermohaline currents (thermo= temperature,
haline = salt) in the deep ocean and wind driven currents on the surface. Cold, dense water sinks to the bottom while the less dense warm water stays on the surface. Starts in the Norwegian Sea where warm water from the Gulf Stream heats the atmosphere in the cold northern latitudes. This loss of heat to the atmosphere makes the water cooler and denser, causing it to sink to the bottom of the ocean. As more warm water is transported north, the
cooler water sinks and moves south to make room for the incoming warm water. This cold bottom water flows south of the equator all the way down to Antarctica. Eventually, the cold bottom waters return to the surface through mixing and wind-driven upwelling, continuing the conveyor belt that encircles the globe. http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/conveyor.html
Extremely important to the deep sea because it brings nutrients and allows upwelling to occur. Upwelling= Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water then rises up from beneath the surface to replace the water that was pushed away (www.noaa.gov). The water is colder and full of rich nutrients.
Takes around 1600 - 2000 years for one drop of water to go through the loop. The drops of water get caught up in gyres (area of rotating currents) and seas. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h6i16CrI8ss
Deep Sea Properties Depth: >1000m Pressure: high; may exceed 1000 atm (1 atm=10m) Temperature- Thermocline (zone of rapid temperature change) Deep Sea Temps-= 2 Celsius but can be much greater Hydrothermal Temps= 400 Celsius
Chemosynthesis Light amounts: dark- aphotic zone begins at ~ 1000m Density: increases with depth Live about 7-10 years Rely on Hydrogen sulfide Pressure
Fluid pressure in the deep sea animals tissues matches the pressure of the surrounding water. Tissue fluid pressure pushes against the surrounding pressure with an equal but opposite force, preventing the animals body from being crushed.
Low body temperature = low metabolism Animals move slower and grow slower Reproduce less frequently Require less food Advantage of cold-> Increased density of the water -> body densities are close to that of the water so they dont have to expend energy to
keep from sinking Googleimages Oxygen Adequate oxygen because cold water can dissolve more oxygen than the warmer,
deepest waters generate from shallow polar seas. Northern and Southern Seas= thermohaline currents = oxygen rich waters cool off so much that they become dense enough to sink to the bottom.
Color Those that live in the well lit areas adapt by countershading -> dark dorsal surface and lighter ventral to blend in. Diphotic / Twilight Zone 150-450 meters (500-1500 ft.) -> there is still
enough light to use countershading as camouflage Ex- Hatchetfish Photophores Light producing organs located all along their body
Aids in species recognition and bioluminescence may make the ventral surface lighter = camouflage Twilight Zone and Below Variety of colors: Iridescent sheen
Black and brown Deep reds and purples Bioluminescent White (Benthic) Red and Orange appears to be black and gray in depths
Bioluminescence Animals found between 300-2400 m. (1,000- 8,000 ft.) Squid, crustaceans, fish -> have their own luminescent organs Others harbor bacteria (mutualism)= light for the host and the bacteria have a place to live / feed. Some can control bioluminescence by altering the
flow of oxygenated blood to the regions where the bacteria lives. Increased oxygen levels = glow Decreased oxygen levels = no glow Why and how does bioluminescence occur? Occurs because of luciferin, a protein, that
combines with oxygen in the presence of luciferase and ATP The chemical energy of ATP is converted into light energy. Very efficient, almost 100% light, no heat Most light is blue / green, some reds and yellows have been reported
Luminescent Organs Rows of photophores along their sides or bellies Depressions on their head or growths coming out of the top of their head Deep Sea Squid- spots on their tentacles
Mating / Species Recognition Patterns of light identifies an individual as being male or female. A series of light flashes means they are ready to mate. Ex.- Lanternfish-> males carry bright lights at the
tops of their tails, whereas females have only weak lights on the underside of their tails. Species identification- lanternfish have three rows of light spots, where another species may have two. Male and Female Lanternfish
Attracting Prey Anglerfish and Stomiatoids attract prey with lures Ventral surface lights up = see their prey Lights around their eyes that illuminate whatever the fish looks like. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XUVerZ
sbYiw Defense Squid release a bioluminescent fluid that clouds the water with light confusing predators. Opossum shrimp- female carries her eggs in a
pouch under her thorax and when threatened they release a substance that bursts into a cloud of mini light particles that look like stars in the sky. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9HXXQBz 6Vv0
Seeing in the Dark
Normal vertebrate eye spheroid / one retina Deep Sea= tubular and contain 2 retinas Retina 1= See distance Retina 2= See close up Allows them to see better in dim light and have good depth perception. They can judge the distance of their prey better so they
wont miss it. This is a HUGE ADVANTAGE! At depths between 900-1500 m. the eyes are smaller and less functional. Ex- Anglerfish: it begins life in well lit areas and as they become an adult they sink and live in the depths, about 1800 meters. The
eyes stop growing and degenerate. Finding Mates Anglerfish: males bite the female and remain attached, sometimes forever (lifelong parasite). The skin around the males mouth and jaws fuses with the females body and only a small opening remains on
either side of the mouth for gas exchange. The eyes and most of the internal organs degenerate and the circulatory system becomes connected to the females. The male is just an external sperm producing appendage. Females have lures Males have teeth (snout and chin)
Finding Food Food is scarce Feed on organic waste, dead organisms, and scraps Detritus feeders are key prey in the deep sea food web
Many rise at night to feed in the nutrient rich waters, returning during the day (vertical migrations) Gulper Eels Hinged jaws (trapdoor) and stomachs that can expand to several times their size.
The tip of the tail is bioluminescent and may be used to attract prey. Stomiatoids Black Sea Dragon Ingest prey larger than itself Most species are 6-7 inches long Large heads, curved fang like teeth and
elongated bodies that tapers into a small tail More about Black Sea Dragons Barbel- fleshy projection that dangles below its chin / throat. It varies from species to species. Some are short hairs Some are whip-like structures
Many are bioluminescent Unknown function but may be used as a lure, to probe bottom ooze for food, or species identification during mating. Anglerfish
Lure at the tip that is a modified dorsal spineacts like a fishing pole, lies in a groove on top when its not used. Giants of the Deep Most are small but there are some large ones- perhaps because they live longer and can grow more.
Ex- Sea Urchins (30 cm. = 1 ft.) Ex- Hydroids (8 ft. high) http://www.google.com/url? sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAYQjB0&url=http%3A%2F %2Foceanexplorer.noaa.gov%2Fexplorations%2F05fire%2Flogs%2Fapril22%2Fmedia %2Furchins.html&ei=nfAAVd76LcOdgwSO_oKADQ&bvm=bv.87920726,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNGiKw
Architeuthus Largest invertebrate: 9-16 m. (30-53 ft.) Arms are as thick as a human thigh Thousands of suckers Two tentacles: 12 m. (40 ft.long) Possibly weigh 1 ton http://www.ted.com/talks/edith_widder_ho
w_we_found_the_giant_squid#t-228725 Vampire Squid Webbing between the arms and dark color cloak like a vampire They think it avoided extinction by retreating to the bottom of the ocean while its ancestors died 100
mya Soft muscles / poor development = bad swimmer, most likely drifts Bioluminescent organs that are covered by large flaps of skin http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/news/
http://www.amazingandweird.com/facts/ vampire-squid-facts-20-facts-about-vampire- Life on the BottomBenthic Communities
Biggest struggle-> availability of food No photosynthesis, cold temps Slow bacteria growth Base of the food chain is vey limited / non-existent
Food consists of whatever falls from above -> particles, carcasses, feces, and organic matter Turbidity currents deliver organic nutrients to abyssal plains and trenches Food Chains Meiofauna-> small benthic invertebrates
Ex- foraminifera and nematode worms feed on bacteria, organic matter, and each other. Infauna
Animals living in the sediment of the ocean floor
Ex- Larger worms and bivalves feed on meiofauna. Deposit feeders Deep sea bivalves use siphons to suck food up on the sediment Other deposit feeders-> sea cucumbers (sea pig), brittlestars, and urchins dominate the landscape Giant crinoids and sea pens -> suspension feeders
Predators= fish, squid, sea stars Mid-ocean trenches-> food is scarce, even tiny organisms are rare Vent Chemistry Fallout of precipitated MnO2 and FeO(OH)
Precipitation of FeS, CaSO4, CuFeS2 Basalt Discovered in 1977 by Bob
Ballard Galapagos Was in the Alvin and he saw a shimmery object. He put a probe in it and it melted. How does a vent form?
Hot vent fluid mixes with cold seawater causing a series of chemical reactions to occur. Example -sulfur in some vent fluid combines with the metals, forming sulfide minerals. When the mixing occurs as the fluid exits the seafloor, the minerals precipitate to form chimney-like structures that project (sometimes for several meters) into the
surrounding ocean. Bacteria covers the area attracting other small organisms such as amphipods and copepods. Chemosynthetic Bacteria of the Vents 6CO2 + 6H2O + 3H2S -> C6H12O6 + 3H2SO4
Use energy contained in HS- to make organic material Bacteria are the base of the vent food chain Tube Worms Riftia worm Size: up to 6 ft- 10 ft. Thought they were clams
Red plume acts like gillexchanges CO2, O2, H2S with water Special organ filled with symbiotic bacteria that perform chemosynthesis which pass organic matter to worm. They actually dont eat
but house the bacteria in their guts. Why are the vents important? Oasis of life, about 300 species have been identified. A new organisms is discovered every 10 days.
Doesnt depend on photosynthesis- perhaps life didnt begin by photosynthesis, but through chemosynthesis. May provide information on the formation of life. Think there may be more biomass in our crust.
Deep Sea Adaptations Small. Less than 10cm. ExampleOgre fish (Fang tooth) which is 4 cm. Reduced or no swim bladder Bioluminescence- 95% of all ocean animals Large mouths- eat large things,
they may not eat for a while Hermaphroditic- need to change sexes Dark coloration- red = cant see me, many are flabby, some are clear Why are they small?
Not a lot of food-> dont spend their energy on being large, they need to move, reproduce, and conserve energy. Dragonfish Has red bioluminescence
Signals to others-> food, mates Still researching Deep sea Lizardfish Dragonfish
Hairy Anglerfish Gulper Eel Anglerfish
Anglerfish Pearleye Fish Dragonfish Redmouth Whalefish
Lancetfish Hatchetfish Vulcan Octopus
Flashlight Fish Dragonfish Sea Pig
Cusk Eel Deep Sea Lobster Uses density and pressure
differences to suspend itself in the water. Giant Sea Spider Greenland Sleeper Shark
Ctenophore Jellyfish Deep Sea Spider Deep Sea Squid
The Deep Seafloor Deep sea sea urchin Deep sea seastar and sea spider Deep sea cucumber
Tripod fish Chimaera Deep-sea amphipods Found near baitfall (any carcass that dies). Always first to the
dead stuff. Well developed sense of smell Expandable gut Bring them to the surface they explode Videos
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S3CJIKKSU pg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UXl8F-eIoi M http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D69hGvCs WgA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQP5yV9y
Dinoflagellates Trinidad Ocean Zones 100m dysphotic
Light penetration in the o The Electromagnetic Radiation Spectrum Only green and blue wavelengths pass through water -about 100 meters Light
Penetration in the Ocean What organisms that you know of have bioluminescence? Bioluminescence evolved in several kingdoms.
Evolution: In early evolution, O2 was toxic. Some organisms were able to convert it to a nontoxic substance, which had the tendency to produce photons of light. This may have had a selective advantage to some organisms. Not found in freshwater organisms.
Bioluminescence Chemical Reactio n luciferase Luciferin + O2
Oxyluciferin + light Photophore (bacterial / symbiotic) Light emitting organ that cant be controlled or turned on and off.
Examples of Bacterial Photophores: fish, few squid, Pyrosoma (tunicate) How do they get bacteria? organ open to exterior (provide entrance for bacteria to enter) potentially continuous luminescence
Pyrosoma Examples of fish that have bacterial photophores: Anglerfish (ceratioids) Pinecone fish (Monocentrids) Lantern eyes/flashlightfish (Anomalopids) Ponyfishes/slipmouths (Leiognathids)
Ichthyococcus Flashlight Fish Has a flap to cover its glowing qualities. Cephalopod Photophore
Photophores Cephalopods possess a great variety Some are very small and complex less than .2 mm, while others are large. Wide range in structure from a simple group of photogenic cells to organs with photogenic cells surrounded by
reflectors, lenses, light guides, color filters and muscles. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BtQ GslJjLdc Complex photophores are often able to actively adjust the color, intensity
and angle of the light they produce. Photophores of most oceanic cephalopods have intrinsic luminescence with the light coming from their own specialized cells, the photocytes. Photophores of most neritic
cephalopods, in contrast, have extrinsic luminescence with the light produced by bacteria that are cultured in specialized light organs of the host cephalopod. Chromatophores
Pigment cells that absorb light leaving the photophore in undesirable directions or that shield the reflectors of the photophore,
when the photophore is not active, from reflecting external light that could reveal the presence of the cephalopod.
Color Filters Structures within a photophore that restrict the color of the light emitted by the
photocytes. Filters can either rely on selective absorption of light (pigment filters) or selective transmission/refle
ction of light (iridophores). Lenses A variety of structures that apparently affect the directionality of
light are called "lenses." Some of these appear to act like typical optical lenses but the mode of action of others (like those in the
illustration to the right) are uncertain. Light Guides Structures that control the direction of emitted light through the use of "light pipes"
that rely on total internal reflection. These function in the same manner as fiber-optic light guides. Photocytes Photocytes - Cells that
produce light (i.e., the bioluminescence). Reflectors The primary reflectors are structures at the back of a photophore that reflect light toward the exterior. These may be broad-band reflectors
that reflect all light or narrow-band reflectors that selectively reflect specific colors. Light not reflected by the latter structure passes through it and is absorbed by chromatophores that usually surround the reflector. Secondary reflectors can be found in various regions near the distal parts of the photophore. These
generally have a role in controlling the directionality of the emitted light. Photogenic crystalloids Some photocytes have crystallinelike inclusions that are thought to be the actual site within the cell where light is produced.
Intrinsic photophores: 1. Widely distributed, ex. Cookie cutter shark 2. Numerous photophores 1000s 3. Make own luminescence 4. Control output of light (on and off) 5. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syISlRJTaw4
Control of Bioluminescence: They can control bioluminescent intensity by controlling blood supply to light organ (i.e., control the amt of O2 -O2 decreases light intensity decreases) Light control using a shield Lid Vascular control
Rotation of organ What are the advantages of using bioluminescence? Fu n c t i o n o f B i o l u m i n e s c e n c
Reproductive advantage Countershading Escape and avoid predation Species recognition Feeding In evolution
Countershading C a m o u fl a g e Malacosteus (dragonfish) Communication
squids- looking for mates. Predation Some predators can lure prey by mimicking signals of prey. Other predators dangle a lure to attract prey.
Burglar Alarm Theory Defense mid-water squid releases a bioluminescent cloud to startle and confuse predators.
pterapods Firefly squid Photophores on ventral surface
Deep sea gulper Deep sea viper fish & deep sea shrimp Black Devil Angler Fish lure
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