Course on Computer Communication and Networks Lecture 12 ...

Course on Computer Communication and Networks Lecture 12 Continuously evolving Internet-working Part B: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT EDA344/DIT 423, CTH/GU Based on the book Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach, Jim Kurose, Keith Ross, Addison-Wesley. M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 1 Timing/bandwidth guarantees in networks aka Quality of Service (QoS): 2-party agreement (NW user NW provider) on Traffic characteristics (packet rate, sizes, ) Network service guarantees (delay, jitter, loss rate, ) Model for resource sharing and congestion studies: questions/principles for QoS in Network Core Distinguish traffic? Control offered load? (isolate different streams?) Allocate: resources? (utilization) Control acceptance of new sessions?

Tasks for the NW core: Packet classification & scheduling (bandwidth allocation) Traffic shaping/policing (enforce contract terms) Admission control M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3 Lets hit the road again: Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-4 Where does this go in?

Scheduling = choosing the next packet for transmission on a link (= allocate bandwidth) if buffer full: a discard policy determines which packet to discard among the arrival and those already queued M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT Packet Scheduling example: Weighted Fair Queueing Weighted Fair Queuing: generalized Round Robin, including priorities (weights) provide each class with a differentiated amount of service class i receives a fraction of service wi/(wj) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 6 Policing Mechanisms Idea: shape the packet traffic :network provider does traffic policing, ie enforces the shape agreed. Traffic shaping, to limit transmission rates: (Long term) Average Rate (e.g.100 pkts/sec or 6000 packets per min) Peak Rate: e.g.1500 pkts/sec peak (Max.) Burst Size: Max. number of packets sent consecutively, ie over a very short

period of time M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 7 Policing Mechanisms: LeakyToken Bucket Idea: packets sent by consuming tokens that are produced at constant rate r limit inputs Burst Size (b= bucket capacity) Average Rate (max admitted #packets over time period t is b+rt). Another way to illustrate token buckets: M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 8 Policing: the effect of buckets input output 0KB token leaky bucket, 2MBps output 250KB token leaky bucket, 2MBps output 500KB token leaky bucket, 2MBps

output 750KB token leaky bucket, 2MBps output token leaky bucket 500KB, 2MBps, feeding 0KB, 10MBps token leaky bucket M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT to futher limit burstiness, use a second leaky bucket with higher rate 9 Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-10 Virtual Circuit example: ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode nets

Internet s IP: todays de facto standard for global data networking 1980s: telcos develop ATM specifications: competing network standard for carrying high-speed voice/data ATM principles: virtual-circuit networks: switches maintain state for each call small (48 byte payload, 5 byte header) fixed length cells (like packets) fast switching small size good for voice well-defined interface between network and user (think of classic telecom) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 11 Example VC technology

ATM Network service models (i.e. transport layer services): Service Model Constant Bit Rate VariableBR (RT/nRT) Available BR UndefinedBR Guarantees ? Example Bandwidth Loss Order Timing voice constant rate guaranteed rate guaranteed minimum

none yes yes yes yes yes yes no yes no no yes no Video/ streaming www-browsing

Background file transfer Congestion control Admission control Admission control Yes, feedback discard pkts With ABR you can get min guaranteed capacity and better, if possible; with UBR you can get better, but you may be thrown out in the middle M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 12 ATM (VC) Congestion Control (hand-in-hand with Bandwidth reservation) Several different strategies in place : Admission control and resource reservation (CBR and VBR traffic: reserve resources when opening a VC; traffic shaping and policing (use bucket-like methods) Rate-based congestion control: (ABR traffic) idea = feedback to the sender and intermediate stations on the available (= max. acceptable) rate on the VC.

similar to choke packets (option provided in ICMP, which is not used in implementations) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 13 Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-14 Internet bandwidth-guarantee support possibilities? Diffserv proposed Architecture Edge router: marking per-aggr-flow traffic management

marks packets as in-profile and out-profile r b marking scheduling .. . Diffserv approach: provide functional components to build service classes Network core: stateless, simple Combine into aggregated flows, classification, shaping, admission: @ network edge Core router: scheduling per class traffic scheduling

based on marking at edge preference given to in-profile packets M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 15 Edge-router Packet Marking Rate A B DiffServ Core Functions Forwarding: according to Per-Hop-Behavior (PHB) strictly based on classification marking PHB does not specify mechanisms to ensure required PHB performance E.g.: Class A gets x% of bandwidth over time intervals of a specified length Class A packets leave before class B packets User packets -Class-based marking: packets of different classes marked differently Profile within class: pre-negotiated rate A, bucket size B

Packet is marked in the Type of Service (TOS) in IPv4, and Traffic Class in IPv6 Advantage: No state info to be maintained by routers M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 16 Another approach: Intserv: QoS guarantee scenario Resource reservation per individual application session (admission control, continuous) call setup, signaling (RSVP) Maintains state a la VC (but soft state, ie times out) responsibility at the client to renew reservations request/ reply Requires QoS-sensitive scheduling (e.g., WFQ) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 17

Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-18 Recall the Internet approach : virtualizing networks Internetwork layer (IP): addressing: internetwork appears as single, uniform entity, despite underlying local network heterogeneity network of networks Gateway: embed internetwork packets in local packet format route (at internetwork level) to next

gateway gateway ARPAnet satellite net M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 19 What happened? E.g. ATM: network or link layer? Vision: end-to-end transport: ATM from desktop to desktop ATM is a network technology Reality: - used to connect IP backbone routers . or IP over ATM replace network (e.g., LAN segment) with ATM network, (ATM + IP addresses) Run datagram routing on top of virtual-circuit routing . ATM network

Ethernet LANs M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 20 Cerf & Kahns Internetwork Architecture What is virtualized? two layers of addressing: internetwork and local network new layer (IP) makes everything homogeneous at internetwork layer underlying local network technology Cable, satellite, 56K telephone modem Ethernet, other LAN ATM More recent: MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching Protocol): for traffic engineering invisible at internetwork layer. Looks like a link layer technology to IP M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 21 Traffic engineering: difficulties with traditional Internet routing 5 2 v

3 2 u 3 1 x w 1 5 1 y z 2 Q: what if network operator wants to split u-to-z traffic along uvwz and uxyz (load balancing)? A: cant do it (or need a new routing approach)

M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 5-22 Traffic engineering: difficulties with traditional Internet routing 5 2 3 v v 2 u 1 xx w w zz 1 3

1 5 yy 2 Q: what if w wants to route blue and red traffic differently? A: cant do it (with destination based forwarding, and LS, DV routing) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 5-23 Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) in IP networks: VC-inspired goal: utilize multiple S-T paths simultaneously borrow ideas from Virtual Circuit (VC) approach but IP datagram still keeps IP address label-switched router forwards packets to outgoing interface based only on label value (dont inspect IP address) MPLS protocols forwarding table distinct from IP forwarding tables PPP or Ethernet header MPLS header

label IP header Exp S TTL remainder of link-layer frame MPLS router must co-exist with IP-only routers 5 1 3 20 M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT MPLS versus IP paths entry router (R4) can use different MPLS routes to A based, e.g., on source address (needs MPLS-capable routers) R6 D R4 R3

R5 A R2 IP routing: path to destination determined by destination address alone MPLS routing: path can be based on source and dest. address fast reroute: precompute backup routes in case of link failure or congestion (eg for CDN distribution) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT IP-only router MPLS and IP router 25 Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned]

M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-27 Recall: Traditional Internet, per-router control plane Individual routing algorithm components in each and every router interact with each other in control plane to compute forwarding tables Routing Algorithm control plane data plane M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 28 Recall: logically separated control plane A distinct (typically remote) controller interacts with local control agents (CAs) in routers to compute forwarding tables compute tables seperately and distribute Remote Controller

control plane data plane CA CA CA CA CA M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 29 Analogy: mainframe to PC evolution Specialized Applications Specialized Operating System Specialized Hardware Vertically integrated

Closed, proprietary Slow innovation Small industry * Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap p p p p p p p p p p Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap App Open Interface Windows (OS) or Linux or Mac OS Open Interface Microprocessor Horizontal

Open interfaces Rapid innovation Huge industry * Slide courtesy: N. McKeown M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 5-30 Software defined networking (SDN) 4. programmable control applications routing access control 3. control plane functions external to data-plane switches load balance

Remote Controller control plane data plane CA CA CA CA CA 2. control, data plane separation 1: generalized flowbased forwarding (e.g., OpenFlow) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 31 SDN perspective: data plane switches network-control applications

routing access control load balance northbound API control plane SDN Controller Data plane switches fast, simple, for data-plane forwarding in H/W switch flow table: computed by controller API for table-based switch control (e.g., OpenFlow) protocol for communicating with controller (e.g., OpenFlow) (network operating system)

southbound API data plane SDN-controlled switches M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 32 SDN perspective: SDN controller network-control applications routing SDN controller (network OS): maintains network state information interacts with network control applications above (northbound API) interacts with network switches below (southbound API) implemented as distributed system for performance, scalability, robustness access

control load balance northbound API control plane SDN Controller (network operating system) southbound API data plane SDN-controlled switches M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 5-33 SDN perspective: control applications network-control applications network-control apps: brains of control: for control functions using lowerlevel services, API provided by SDN controller

unbundled: can be provided by 3rd party: distinct from routing vendor, or SDN controller routing access control load balance northbound API control plane SDN Controller (network operating system) southbound API data plane SDN-controlled switches M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 34

Zooming in: components of SDN controller access control routing Interface layer to network control apps: abstractions API Network-wide state management layer: state of networks links, switches, services: a distributed database Interface, abstractions for network control apps network graph RESTful API statistics intent flow tables

Network-wide distributed, robust state management Link-state info communication layer: communicate between SDN controller and controlled switches load balance host info OpenFlow switch info SDN controller SNMP Communication to/from controlled devices M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT

35 Roadmap NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-36 Recall: Internet & its context. Multimedia approx 10 yrs ago continuous evolution . M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT

Example: Data networking technologies in Smart Grids Here be SCADA n o ti ca s i un gie m lo o m Co chn te n o ti ci a u n ls m o m c Co roto p SONET - Synchronous Optical Network WDM - Wavelength Division Multiplexing Satellite/VSAT

IP Radio Twisted pair / Fiber optics BPL - Broadband over Power Lines WiMax - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access GPRS ? Ethernet rules? Ethernet rules~ Ethernet rules! (IEC 61850) ? Hint: not always Slides: Giorgos Georgiadis M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT

Approximate overview of shaping new stacks Protocols @ Distributions last mile OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) ZigBee XMPP BACNet LonWorks Modbus WiFi Proprietary Ethernet / Gigabit Ethernet 6LoW PAN IEEE 802.15.4 HomePlug Proprietary, part 2:

HomePlug Slides: Giorgos Georgiadis (see extra slides for more refs¬es) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT Summary & Study list NW support for multimedia / QoS: [Ch. 9.5 (7.5 6/e) ] Improving timing/QoS guarantees in Networks (also related with congestion-control): Packet scheduling and policing A VC (ATM) approach [incl. Ch 3.7.2 (6e 3.62-3.6.3)] Internet approaches Diff-serv, Int-serv + RSVP, Traffic Engineering MPLS [incl. ch. 6.5 (6/e 5.5)] SDN [ch 4.4, 5.5 (cf separate notes @pingpong docs, if you do not have access to 7e ] Internet-of-Things in evolution: more types of traffic/devices [optional study, just browse example protocols mentioned] 1. 2. 3. 4.

Internet core and transport protocols do not provide guarantees for multimedia streaming traffic Applications/edge take matters into own hands New, evolving methods; new proposals for transport protocols Another type of service @ core (VC-like) would imply a different situation Internet core is re-shaping, for long time (Intserv & Diffserv, Traffic engineering, SDN,) Internet-of-Things in evolution even more types of traffic, new needs . M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 3a-40 Review questions Describe the relation between bandwidth allocation and congestion control Describe a common traffic policing mechanism and give examples of its use. Motivate the need that led to MPLS. Describe the concept of SDN. SDN: what is the role of control plane, the data plane and network control applications? M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT

41 Extra slides/notes for further study M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 42 Token bucket + WFQ can be combined to provide upper bound on packet delay in queue: bi packets in queue, packets are serviced at a rate of at least R w i/ (wj) packets per second, then the time until the last packet is transmitted is at most bi /(R wi/ (wj)) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 43 ATM ABR congestion control ABR: available bit rate: elastic service if path underloaded: sender should use available bandwidth if path congested: sender throttled to

minimum guaranteed rate RM (resource management) cells: interspersed with data cells bits in RM cell set by switches (network-assisted) NI bit: no increase in rate (mild congestion) CI bit: congestion indication two-byte ER (explicit rate) field in RM cell congested switch may lower ER value in cell sender send rate thus minimum supportable rate on path Multimedia+ATM;QoS, M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 45 Traffic Shaping and Policing in ATM Enforce the QoS parameters: check if Peak Cell Rate (PCR) and Cell Delay Variation (CDVT) are within the negotiated limits: Generic Cell Rate Algo: introduce: expected next time for a successive cell, based on T = 1/PCR border time L ( = CDVT) < T in which

next transmission may start (but never before T-L) A nonconforming cell may be discarded, or its Cell Loss Priority bit be set, so it may be discarded in case of congestion Multimedia+ATM;QoS, M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 46 ATM Adaptation (Transport) Layer: AAL Basic idea: cell-based VCs need to be complemented to be supportive for applications. Several ATM Adaptation Layer (AALx) protocols defined, suitable for different classes of applications AAL1: for CBR (Constant Bit Rate) services, e.g. circuit emulation AAL2: for VBR (Variable Bit Rate) services, e.g., MPEG video ..... suitability has not been very successful computer science community introduced AAL5, (simple, elementary protocol), to make the whole ATM stack usable as switching technology for data communication under IP! Multimedia+ATM;QoS, M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,

SDN, IoT 47 Network support for multimedia M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 7-50 Software defined networking (SDN) Internet network layer: historically has been implemented via distributed, per-router approach monolithic router contains switching hardware, runs proprietary implementation of Internet standard protocols (IP, RIP, IS-IS, OSPF, BGP) in proprietary router OS (e.g., Cisco IOS) different middleboxes for different network layer functions: firewalls, load balancers, NAT boxes, .. ~2005: renewed interest in rethinking network control plane M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 5-51 Data networking technologies in Smart Grids

Presentation by Giorgos Georgiadis (former CTH / curr. Bosch R&D) M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT Recall: Internet & its context. Multimedia approx 10 yrs ago continuous evolution . M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 1 Introduction Here be SCADA on ti ca s i un gie m lo o

m n o C ch te n o ti ca i un ls m o m c Co roto p SONET - Synchronous Optical Network WDM - Wavelength Division Multiplexing Satellite/VSAT IP Radio Twisted pair / Fiber optics BPL - Broadband over Power Lines WiMax - Worldwide

Interoperability for Microwave Access GPRS ? Ethernet rules? Ethernet rules~ Ethernet rules! (IEC 61850) ? Hint: not always Fig. Giorgos Georgiadis M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT Approximate overview of shaping new stacks Protocols @ Distributions last mile OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) ZigBee XMPP

BACNet LonWorks Modbus WiFi Proprietary Ethernet / Gigabit Ethernet 6LoW PAN IEEE 802.15.4 M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT HomePlug Proprietary, part 2: HomePlug PHY/DataLink protocols 3

Ethernet Not much to say HomePlug OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) Honorable mention: popular home automation protocol Powerline based 6LowP ZigBee HomePlug XMPP AN Speed: ~200mbps BACNet WiFi LonWorks Otherwise, vanilla protocol: Modbus i.e. using TDMA, Two kinds of nodes, Proprietary

Ethernet / Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.15.4 M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT Proprietary, part 2: HomePlug PHY/DataLink protocols 4 IEEE 802.15.4 Radio based, usually 2.4GHz OpenADR Small packets (<=127bytes) REST-based (i.e. CoAP) Medium speed (~250kbps) Originally DSSS

XMPP Topologies supported: BACNet WiFi Star Peer-to-peer ZigBee 6LowP AN HomePlug LonWorks Modbus Roles supported: Full-function device Reduced-function device Proprietary Ethernet / Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.15.4 M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT

Proprietary, part 2: HomePlug Higher protocols 5 6LoWPAN IPv6 over LoW Power wireless Area Networks Builds on 802.15.4, IPv6 Aimed at low power devices (sensors, controllers) Topologies Star, peer-to-peer + Mesh Many Challenges: IP packets >=1280bytes (!) 128bit IP addresses OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) XMPP BACNet LonWorks Modbus

ZigBee WiFi / M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,Ethernet SDN, IoT 6LoWP AN HomePlug Proprietary, Higher protocols 6 ZigBee Builds on 802.15.4, but not IP Aimed at low power devices too (sensors, controllers) Speed 250kbps Packet 127bytes Battery powered devices (supports sleep) Topologies supported + Mesh (jump to: example) Roles supported

Coordinator, router, end node Different profiles exist: ZigBee Home Automation Zigbee Smart Energy Zigbee IP, ... OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) XMPP BACNet LonWorks Modbus ZigBee WiFi / M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,Ethernet SDN, IoT 6LoWP AN HomePlug Proprietary, Higher protocols

8 More protocols, same story: XMPP, BACNet, LonWorks, Modbus, Wired Proprietary, build around specific companies (BACNet, LonWorks) or legacy protocols (Modbus) Today gateway devices to break out to Ethernet are in use Simple topologies (i.e bus), same roles as before But what is the connecting thread over all? Open standards! Internet! (of Things?) OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) XMPP BACNet LonWorks Modbus ZigBee WiFi / M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,Ethernet SDN, IoT

6LoWP AN HomePlug Proprietary, Towards interoperability 9 OpenADR ADR: Advanced Metering Response Trying to unify different solutions in a high level protocol Formalizing: Roles Messages Device detection Simple topologies (i.e bus), same roles as before REST-based APIs I.e. Costrained Application Protocol Ultimately, HTTP-based Verb oriented: GET, PUT, DELETE, OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) XMPP

BACNet LonWorks Modbus ZigBee WiFi / M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,Ethernet SDN, IoT 6LoWP AN HomePlug Proprietary, Towards interoperability 10 Ethernet/IP-based integration Remember:

Radio band: 2.4GHz (WiFI, ZigBee, 6LoWPAN) Similar topologies, roles Made for low energy devices, but flops/watt/kr increase! Ethernet gateways commonly used Solution: make them (formally) interoperable ZigBee Smart Energy v2.0 ZigBee, WiFi, HomePlug on board 6LoWPAN coming soon OpenADR REST-based (i.e. CoAP) XMPP BACNet LonWorks Modbus ZigBee WiFi / M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering,Ethernet SDN, IoT 6LoWP AN HomePlug Proprietary,

Conclusion Ethernet + misc communication technologies Ethernet vs non-ethernet Why? Design for low energy devices (smaller packets, lower comm speed) Peer to peer, mesh topologies Now + Future? Devices specs catching up Importance of being connected (to the Internet?) Topologies still important (i.e. reliability) Will probably remain radio-based M. Papatriantafilou - Evolving Internet-working Part B: NW_Core: QoS, traffic engineering, SDN, IoT 11

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Nature of Light - schoolwires.henry.k12.ga.us

    Nature of Light - schoolwires.henry.k12.ga.us

    7) What part of the electromagnetic spectrum may be used to kill the cancer cells? 8) What is the use of the infrared waves? Answers: Gamma rays Micro waves RAdio Detection And Ranging Radio waves Gamma rays UV rays from...
  • CSE 415 Intro Artificial Intelligence - University of Washington

    CSE 415 Intro Artificial Intelligence - University of Washington

    Motivation Structural vs Statistical Approaches Levels of Analysis for NLU (for both structural and statistical approaches) Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics Communicating with Language Syntax Example Grammar from a Formal Languages Context Example Grammar from a Computational Linguistics context Exercise Semantics Semantics...
  • The ohio senate activity

    The ohio senate activity

    _____ a bill to eliminate the death penalty in ohio _____ a bill to reduce prescription coverage for ohioans over 65 _____ a bill expanding on state subsidies for ohio farmers with over 100 acres of land _____ a bill...
  • By: Andrei Szigiato and Hardik Bhatt Tuesday September

    By: Andrei Szigiato and Hardik Bhatt Tuesday September

    By: Andrei Szigiato and Hardik Bhatt Tuesday September 20th, 2011
  • Teacher instructions: 1. Print the lesson, What Do

    Teacher instructions: 1. Print the lesson, What Do

    Radios, refrigerators, electric appliances and telephones were becoming a part of the American way of life. Cars were becoming affordable for the middle class, thanks to Henry Ford. Many influential people felt that the good times were here to stay.
  • Writing - SELU

    Writing - SELU

    Documents Supporting Writing. Rubrics - one for each grade, holistic, 1-4 scale (with 3 being independently proficient), criteria matched to grade-level curricula, applied to multiple samples across multiple contexts, most recent and most consistent evidence honoured. Writing continuum (1-12) ...
  • Literacy Strategies for the Business Classroom

    Literacy Strategies for the Business Classroom

    Literacy Strategies for the Business Classroom Angela McCallie Lonoke High School ... Spencer & Miquel Kagan Pick one or two and try them! There are so many more, use what works for YOU and YOUR students! Unit C Worksheet ......
  • Creativity and the Arts - Scottish Interfaith Week

    Creativity and the Arts - Scottish Interfaith Week

    Creativity and the arts in the context of faith and belief could be seen as: ... Sand mandalas illustrate the fragile nature of beauty and impermanence; Singing bowls and tingsha (small cymbals) used in prayer and meditation ... Hindu mandirs....