Controlling as a Management Function

Organizational Control What is control? The process of taking the necessary preventive and corrective actions to ensure that the organizations mission and objectives are accomplish as effectively and efficiently as possible (Kreitner, 2000). A systematic process through which managers regulate organizational activities to make them consistent with the expectations established in

plans and to help the achieve all predetermined standards of performance(Lewis, 2000). 1 Organizational Control What is control? The process of monitoring activities to ensure that goals are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations. (Robbins,2000)

2 Organizational Control Controlling It helps maintain compliance with essential organizational rules and policies. What do managers Control? Quantity Quality Time use

Cost 3 The Control Process Establish objectives and standards. Measure actual performance. Compare results with objectives and standards. Take necessary action.

4 The Control Process 5 Establish Objectives and Standards The control process begins with planning and the establishment of performance objectives.

Performance objectives are defined and the standards for measuring them are set. 6 Establish Objectives and Standards There are three types of standards: Output Standards - measures performance

results in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time. Input Standards - measures work efforts that go into a performance task. Standards of conduct moral and ethical criteria that shape the behavioural climate at the work place 7 Examples of Statandards Profitability standards

Market position standards Productivity standards Product leadership standards Personnel development standards Employee attitude standards Social responsibility standards 8 When measuring standards managers must ask questions. For example

Is the firm efficiently converting inputs into outputs? Are units of inputs and outputs measured accurately? Is product quality improving? Is the firms quality competitive with other firms?

Are employees responsive to customers? Are customers satisfied with the services offered? Are our managers innovative in outlook? Does the control system encourage risk-taking? 9

Measuring Actual Performance Measurements must be accurate enough to spot deviations or variances between what really occurs and what is most desired. Without measurement, effective control is not possible. 10

Comparing Performance to Standards The comparison of actual performance with desired performance establishes the need for action. 11 Taking Corrective Action Managers can choose among three courses

of action Do nothing Correct actual performance Modify standard 12 Taking Corrective Action 13

Taking Corrective Action Checklist may suggest some general areas for corrective action Revise the standard Revise the objective Revise the strategies 14 Types of Control

Feed-forward Sometimes called preliminary control, precontrol or preventive control. They are accomplished before a work activity begins. They make sure that proper directions are set and that the right resources are available to accomplish them. 15 Types of Control Concurrent

Focus on what happens during the work process. Sometimes called steering controls, they monitor ongoing operations and activities to make sure that things are being done correctly. 16 Types of Control Feedback Sometimes called post-action controls, they

take place after an action is completed. They focus on end results, as opposed to inputs and activities. 17 Types of Control 18 Methods of Control

Personal Control Involves direct personal contact and supervision of employees Disadvantages Subjective Lacks objectivity De-motivate employees Costly

Breaks down as organizations expand 19 Methods of Control Bureaucratic Control Aim at ensuring that employees exhibit appropriate behaviours that meet performance

standards Relies on Rules Policies Supervision Reward systems 20 Methods of Control Control through incentives Incentives are a means of encouraging and

rewarding employee behaviour. They are tied to employee behaviour. 21 Methods of Control Clan Control This represents cultural values, beliefs, corporate culture, shared norms and informal relationships to regulate employee

behaviours and facilitate reaching organizational goals. 22 Requirements of an Effective Control System Targets must be realistic Performance standards Linking activity to objectives Employees must understand

Measurement System must be acceptable to the entire workforce Feedback and reporting 23 Information and Control Sources of information Observation

Oral reports Written reports Statistical data 24

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