Components and Compositions - University at Buffalo

Colloid and surface phenomena aspects of Chocolate CE 457/527 Chin Kok Ooi Teck Yu Sia Anshu Verma Shushan Munshi Introduction Chocolates has a wide variety and found in common places Has to meet consumer need Types of chocolates Good for health Marketing Designing chocolates

Energy Size Price Efficiency Legal requirements Advertisement Components and Compositions The ingredients of chocolate Cocoa, cocoa butter, milk and sugar Additional ingredients Lecithin(emulsifier)

agents and flavoring Cocoa and Cocoa butter Both are obtained from the seeds of Theobroma Cocoa. Cocoa beans grow in pods. Cocoa and Cocoa butter General compositions of cocoa bean Composition Per cent Composition Per cent Moisture

6.3- 8.5 Cocoa Red 2.5- 5.0 Fat 46.9- 52.1 Ash 2.9- 4.8 Albuminoids 11.6- 21.1 Astringent matters 7.2- 8.6 Cellulose 3.3- 6.6 Cane sugar

Alkaloids 0.3- 0.5 Starch 8.7- 12.6 Cocoa and Cocoa butter Alkaloids Theobromine and caffeine Theobromine 3,7-dimethyl-xanthine Caffeine 1,3,7-trimethyl-xanthine Cocoa red is formed during the drying of the beans by the action of enzymes on the glucosides. Cocoa and Cocoa butter

Special characteristics of cocoa butter: The melting point of cocoa butter is between 32C and 36C. In spite of low melting point, cocoa butter is hard and brittle at normal room temperature. Help to prevent fat bloom Milk Compositions of cow milk Component Content (% w/w) Water 87.3 Proteins (caseins & whey proteins)

3.3 Fat 3.9 Lactose 4.6 Minerals 0.65 Others (vitamins, organic acids, etc) 0.32 Milk Compositions of lipids in milk Component Content (% of total fat) Triglycerides

96-99 Diglycerides 0.3-1.6 Monoglycerides 0.02-0.1 Free fatty acids 0.1-0.4 Phospholipids 0.2-1.0 Sterols 0.2-0.4 Cerebosides 0.01-0.07 Sugar

Sucrose Combination of glucose and fructose Sugar bloom Chocolate manufacturing process Fermented and Dried Beans Cleaning Roasting Breaking and Winnowing Nib-Shell Mixtures Nib Shell Germ Separation Germ-free Nib Milling Cacoa-Mass (Chocolate liquor) Cocoa manufacture

Chocolate manufacture Alkalization Addition of Sugar, Flavor, Milk etc. and Cocoa Butter Removal of excess moisture Mixing Fat Pressing Press Cake Refining Cocoa Butter Conching Breaking Grinding Sifting Cocoa Powder Tempering

Molding Plain or Milk Chocolate Enrobing Chocolate -coated goods Major function of these processes 1. Fermenting and drying 2. Roasting 3. Critical for flavor development Winnowing

4. Removal of adhering pulp Removal of moisture Removal of seed coat Size selection of nibs Milling Release of fat from cells Major function of these processes 5. Cocoa manufacture Production of additional fat (cocoa butter) 6. Refining Grinding of sugar particles 7. Conching Reduction in viscosity

8. Tempering Pre-crystallization process Chocolate flow properties Chocolate exhibits non-Newtonian properties For Newtonian fluid: D For Bingham fluid: pl D D 1 2 3 Different types of rheogram: (1) Newtonian; (2) Bingham; (3) pseudoplastic (e.g. chocolate) o

Steiners model for chocolate - adapted from Cassons model for printers ink 1 a DN 1 1 a 2 K 0 .......................................................................(1) K1 a r / R................................................................................................................(2) 2 DN .........................................................................................................(3) 1 a2 where r, R are the inner and outer radius of the cylinder respectively, is the angular velocity, DN is the shear rate at the inner cylinder. CA = (1/slope)2 = (1/K1)2 = plastic viscosity according to Casson; CA = (b/2)2 =K02 = yield value according to Casson (1 a) D N b=2K0

(1 a ) Casson rheogram according to OICC Factors affecting the flow properties of chocolate Fat content: 12 100 Casson plastic viscosity (Pa.s) 10 80 8 1 1 60 6

40 4 2 2 20 2 0 28 32 % fat 36 0 28 32 36 % fat

Influence of fat content on Casson parameters of two milk chocolates with 0.25% lecithin.(1) Fine chocolate with 5.7% particles > 20m; (2) moderaltely coarse chocolate with 16% particles > 20m. Lecithin and other emulsifiers: immediate reduction in viscosity Moisture content: increases viscosity Particle size distribution: 80 70 3 Casson yield value (Pa) Casson plastic viscosity (Pa.s) 4 1 2 2 1

60 50 1 40 30 2 20 10 0 0 0 10 20 30 %>20 m icrons 40

50 0 10 20 30 40 50 %>20 m icrons Influence of fineness on Casson parameters of two milk chocolates with 0.25% lecithin. (1) 30% fat; (2) 32% fat Temper: increases viscosity Thixotropy: decreases viscosity Vibration: decreases viscosity Temperature:

5 4 100 Casson yield value (Pa) Casson plastic viscosity (Pa.s) 120 3 2 2 1 1 1 80 60

2 40 20 0 0 40 50 tem perature C 60 40 45 50 55 60 Tem perature C

Influence of temperature on Casson parameters of two milk chocolates. (1) 34% fat, without lecithin; (2) 30% fat, 0.15% lecithin Surface- active substances in chocolate manufacturing Lecithin is the chief surfactant used The other surfactants are: ammonium phosphatides (YN) polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) The chief function are: reduce viscosity Reduce thickening due to moisture and temperature Modify the setting behavior of fat phase Flow characteristics of plain chocolate with added surface-active lipids Addition 0.3% soy lecithin 0.3% YN 0.3% sucrose dipalmitite 0.3% PGPR 0.8% PGPR Casson plastic viscosity (poise)

6.1 10.3 8.6 32.5 20.3 Casson yield value (dynes/cm2) 92 30 166 25 0 80 7 70 6 60 Casson yield value ( Pa) Casson plastic viscosity (Pa.s)

8 5 4 3 1 2 2 1 Influence of soya lecithin addition on Casson parameters of two dark chocolates. (1) 33.5% fat, 1.1% water; (2) 39.5% fat, 0.8% water 50 40 1 30 20

2 10 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 % lecithin 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6

0.8 1 % lecithin 10 Apparent viscosity (Pa.s) 8 4 6 Viscosity reduction of dark chocolate by soya lecithin and by synthetic active lipids . Apparent viscosity determined at shear rate 15 s-1 and 50oC; initial apparent viscosity before addition: 19.5 Pa s or 195 poises. (1) Soya lecithin; (2) phospholipid YN; (3) sucrose dipalmitate; (4) polyglyceryl polyricinoleate, PGPR 3 4 1 2

2 0 0 0.2 0.4 % addition 0.6 0.8 Mechanism of viscosity reduction by lecithin 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. a monomolecular film is formed on the surface of the non-fatty particles by surfactant molecules. reduction in internal friction by promoting the coating of

sugar and cocoa solids by fatty medium. increase in the amount of free cocoa butter in the dispersion medium by displacement from the surface of solids. prevention of agglomeration of sugar particles and cocoa particles by break down of any lattice-type structure between them. absorption of moisture Effect of lecithin on the stability of emulsions Lecithin molecule at interface between water and oil oil-inwater waterin-oil Oil Types of emulsions Sedimentatio n Creaming of emulsions: four phases Creaming

Coalescence Separatio n Chocolate an emulsion of hydrophilic sugar and lipophilic cocoa particles in a continuous fat medium Molecular structure of main phospholipids found in lecithin Phospholipid structure at the interface of an emulsion PACKAGING AND STORAGE METHOD OF WRAPPING: MOLDED CHOCOLATE BLOCKS. CHOCOLATE COUNTLINES.

BOXED CHOCOLATE. TWRIST WRAPPING. MATERIAL FOR PACKAGING: ALUMINUM FOIL. REGENERATED CELLULOSE FILM (RCF). PLASTIC FILM. MOLDED CHOCOLATE BLOCK

Protection against dirt, moisture and taint. It is more economical . Wide surface for labeling. CHOCOLATE COUNTLINES Normally wrap in pillow pack By heavy-backed foil, waxed paper or glassine. Protection against moisture vapor and taint. BOXED CHOCOLATE Usually, a thin layer of greaseproof film includes at the inner fitment. It prevents crushing of sweetness and cushioning. Protect against handling dirt. TWRIST WRAPPING

In double end fantail form. By aluminum foil, backed and unbacked plain sliver, colored and printed film. Protection against dirt and taint. ALUMINUM FOIL Best barrier for water vapor and gas transmission. Thickness range from 7-12 m for pure aluminum. Combination with special alloy for extra strength. Thickness range 7-8 m. REGENERATED CELLULOSE FLIM (RCF)

Packaging in flexible form. Usually coated or giving other treatments. Protection against moisture vapor and taint. PVDC for extra protection such as electrostatics. An advantage for tear strip product. PLASTIC FILM Three different forms: polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride and polyester. Available in film or coating purposes. Protection against moisture, gas and ultraviolet.

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