Comparative Public Management and Policy

Introduction to Public Affairs PIA 2000 The Structure and Process of Bureaucracies- First Cut Bureaucrats, Regulations and Political

Institutions Lobbyists, Networks and Pressures Debates about Public Sector Reform Prologue: An Overview of Public Sector Reform

A New Debate? A 1930s Cartoon Reform Epochs: 16th Century France: Separation of King from retainers. Creation of Bureaucracy 18th Century Prussia: Cameralism- Defined civil

administrators in public and Corporate Sector Nineteenth Century: British India and British Reforms: Selection by Examination and Interview Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century U.K. and U.S.: Civil Service Reform: Ending the Spoils Last Part of the Twentieth Century: Structural Adjustment

Rembrandt's painting The Mercantilists Bureaucracies, Politicians and Clients Overall Themes of the Next Several Weeks: 1.

Characteristics of Bureaucracies 2. Explaining Bureaucratic Behavior

3. Clients: The comparative advantage of the "Iron Triangle" model (Executive Bureaucracy, Congress and Staff and Lobbyists). 4.

Clients and Democracy: The Power of the Lobbyist 5. Corporatism as the Alternative Concept (Conspiracry?) 6.

Evaluating Reform Two Views of Behavior The Problem: Inefficiency

Corruption Interest Influence Authoritarian Lincoln and the Accusation of Patronage

Kenya Poster: A Reminder How to Reform: Organizational and Administrative Reform (Motivation and Communication) Civil Service Reform (Recruitment)

Fiscal Reform (Spending and Ownership) Policy Reform (Law and Order vs. Development) Modern Reforms: U.S. Model

U.S. Civil Service Reform: 1883: End of Spoils Hoover Commissions: 1940s and

1950s (Admin. Reform) New Public Administration: Advocacy Reform and Affirmative Action

Structural Adjustment: Debt Management and PrivatizationInternationalized Reform

New Public Management: Customers and Clients Clients: The Role of Groups The Role of Groups

Reform Perspective Extent of access to public sector Iron Triangle Problem of Illicit Access The Iron Triangle and the Revolving Door

Group Influences-Five Models: 1. Japan/Asia- Johnson's perspective (State Centric Planning and one way movement) 2. Europe- (Orwell, Greene, Ferrel Heady (Representation vs. Corporatism)

3. U.S.- Pluralism vs. Elite Theory (Truman vs. C. Wright Mills) 4. Latin America: Military Corporatism and Patron Client Relationships 5. Africa: Crony Capitalism Peronism vs. Chile

Pluralist vs. Controlling Power Elite- Class Pluralist (Competitive)

LDCs An absence of "clients" or Too many? The Role of patronage, corruption and Crony capitalism. -Indonesia -Korea -West Africa

-China -U.S.? Crony Capitalism ISSUE: Public Interest vs. private interests

(and the bureaucracy as an interest group) Question: Is there such a thing as a Public Interest Group? (PIG) NGOs: Public, private or Ideological? Clients and

Democracy John Q. Public Is there such a person? Major themes in Comparative Public AdministrationAdministrative Structures and SocietyI. An Individualist view of state-society relationships

a. Common law view of society; b. Anglo-Saxon model: law and order as basic function of government; c. Society made up of individuals- liberalism Classical Liberalism

Classical Liberalism? Partisanship, Democracy and Bureaucracy- A Reminder a. Fused vs. Separation of Powers Yes Minister (Britain)

b. Cabinet Government vs. Presidential Systems- Collective Responsibility (U.S. Latin America and France- Mixed) c. Legislatures- Committee systems, Groups and bureaucratic authority Liberalism or Not

Liberalism Administrative Structures and Society II. Statist view of Society- Collectivist (Frances FitzGerald- Fire in the Lake on Vietnam)- Three Views a. Idea of an active, creative state, development

oriented (Keynes) b. Marxist-Leninist model- communitarian c. Corporatist idea of society as groups- civil service as a group (Western Europe) d. Focus- Group Mobilization Corporatism as the Alternative ConceptGroups and Leadership Francisco Franco

Mobilization of Working Class The Power of the Group Authoritarianism

Authoritarian systemsStructures absent to protect citizens from fused state and bureaucracy Non-Constitutional Systems: Military Regimes and One Party StatesPoliticized bureaucracy Rent Seeking, Nepotism

and Corruption Evaluating Reforms? Political Structures and Public Management Themes 1. Issues of Governance, Interests

and Political Development 2. The Administrative State Concept: Weak Political controls and a strong bureaucratic elite Control: How to vs. Should one?

Political Structures and Public Management III. Elite vs. egalitarian views of public service. (A Reminder)- Interests within the State) a. Maximum Deferred Achievement (No pre-selection)

b. Maximum Ascriptive Model (Class based) c. Progressive Equal Attrition Model Egalitarian- Professional- collectivist The Process: Images of Recruitment

Political Structures and Public Management 1. Structure of Civil Service Systems: The role of Mandarins and political penetration into the civil service 2. Decayed and Transferred Institutions: (Kings and Colonies)- The creation of an organizational

bourgeoisie (Irving Markovitz) 3. Corporatist Systems can be royalist, military, social (Spain, Argentina, Scandinavia) The Myth: Classical NonPartisanism The Politics/Administration Dichotomy: The Role of Non-Partisan Movements and

Generic Management POSDECORB (Luther Gulick) (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing, Coordinating, Reporting, and Budgeting) How Neutral? Differences between the public and

the private sector- How much, or how little? 1. No significant differences between personnel in large private vs. public organizations 2. Differences in the structures within which the individual has to work

3. The bureaucracy is an institution of government Government: Differences from the private sectorDifference in Product 4. Private- emphasis is on profit, economy and efficiency

5. Public- need to account for the political and social- not what is always efficient 6. Issue- motivation or its absence in the public sector Recruitment: The Only Game in Town (for Reform)

KEY: The recruitment of professionals and specialists contradicts with the issue of political control a. Problem- management, eg. the Department, often does not control recruitment b. Legislation sets the rules- merit system with civil service commission overseeing the

process c. Civil Service Commission or Office of Personnel acts as an intermediary THE PROBLEM Management of the public sector organization is separated from the

major management functionseg. promotion, firing, discipline, collective bargaining The Bottom Line Government Has THE Monopoly of Power (Ultimately Life and Death)

Basic Principles? The Bureaucracy is an institution of government a. The public bureaucrat has greater recourse to sanctions than the private b. Only partly true- the credit card

company and the collection agency Origins of bureaucratic power a. Bureaucracy is largely autonomous, only 10% of actions controlled by politicos b. Actions are seldom subjected to political

or judicial review c. Problem of bureaucratic lethargy- resists change Lethargy (Dong Eun Kim) Origins of bureaucratic

power-2 d. Bureaucracies are COMPLEX ORGANIZATIONS and are difficult to control e. Bureaucrats have the market cornered on expertise f. Bureaucrats play "bureaucratic politics" behind the politicians' backs

Bureaucratic Method: U.K. The political implications of role theory ROLE SETS (Robert Merton)

Role Conflict in the bureaucracy Role vs. Status vs. Individuals Role Theory: Animal Behavior? The bureaucrat can have a complex set of interpersonal

relationships 1. Analyst and advocate 2. Planner 3. Managers and lobbyists 4. Professional and employee 5. Citizen

6. Spouse and Parent Bureaucratic Norms? Theories of Behavior Rational Behavior and Decision-Making Standard Operating Behavior (SOPs)

Bureaucratic Politics- Turf and Control Group Think Graham Allison Kennedy Center, Harvard Born, March 23, 1940

Cuban Missle Crisis The Rights of the Bureaucrat The role of Unions and strikes in the public service Restrictions on political activity, eg.

the Hatch Act in the U.S. Secrecy, Clearance and Whistle Blowing Hatch Act 1833-1896

Next Weeks Discussion V. S. Naipaul, In a Free State Robert Penn Warren, All the Kings Men Daniel Okrent, Last Call C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite James Lehman, The Black Migration

V.S. Naipaul: Born 17 August 1932 Significance of Stories? Daniel Okrent, Last Call Born, April 2, 1948

Why is Booze Important? C. Wright Mills, The Power Elite (1916-1962) Mills commuted to Columbia College on his motorcycle, 1950s

How Valid? How do these two books tie together? James Lehman, The Black Migration

Robert Penn Warren, All the Kings Men Next Week Robert Kharasch Jamil Jriesat Revisit: Naipal, Penn Warren, Lehman

(What did you learn?)

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