Collective Rights of the Métis - Who Are We Becoming?

Collective Rights of the Mtis What laws recognize the collective right of the Mtis? Unlike First Nations, the Mtis do not have any historic treaties with Canadas government They consider rights to land, and rights to use the land in traditional ways as inherent rights Inherent rights are rights they have because

they are First Peoples 1869-1870 The Mtis-led red River Resistance resulted in the Manitoba Act. The act established Manitoba as a bilingual province with education rights for Catholics and Protestants and Mtis land rights The act said the Mtis would receive more than

500 000 hectares of land in addition to the farms they had established along the Red River 1875-1879 Canadas government issued scrip to the Mtis instead of establishing lands in Manitoba In some cases it offered the Mtis a choice: to accept scrip or to become Treaty Indians under a Numbered Treaty

The Canadian government did not believe the Mtis had the same rights to land as First Nations and therefore did not require reserves The Mtis perspective is that they have rights to land as an Aboriginal people 1885 The Northwest Resistance sought to protect Mtis lands in what is today Saskatchewan, as the railway and

settlers moved into western Canada. There are many different interpretations of this event in Canadian history For the Mtis: it was a way to assert their rights For others (including the government): it was an attempt to overthrow Canadas authority Many refused scrips and moved west to Alberta and Saskatchewan

Louis Riel Louis Riel led the Northwest Resistance with ended in a military conflict between the Metis and Canadas government The Mtis had sent petitions to the government about their land rights but the government did not respond Why do you think Canadas government did not respond: did they neglect, or did it dismiss the

petitions? Louis Riel (the aftermath) Louis Riel was tried and hung for treason in Regina on November 16, 1885 At the time, Canadas government, and many Anglophones, agreed with Riels sentence Most Francophone, however, opposed it and saw it as a betrayal of the Francophone-Anglophone agreement

at the foundation of Confederation Today, many consider Louis Riel to be a Father of Confederation who upheld the rights of Aboriginal and Francophones in western Canada 1896-1910 Mtis settlers established farms at St. Paul de Mtis near what is today St. Paul, Alberta on land provided by the Catholic Church

The Mtis do not have title to this land, however, and had to leave when the settlement was closed 1938 Lobbyists seek the attention of Albertas government to set aside land for the Mtis Albertas government passed the Mtis Population Betterment Act in 1938

The act established 12 temporary Mtis settlements This was the first time in Canadas history that a government had provided the Mtis with land 1940-1960 The temporary settlements did not give the Mtis control of the land Four of the settlements proved to be unsuitable

for farming, hunting or fishing As a result, the settlements were closed and the land went back to the government of Alberta How does this demonstrate that the Mtis have diverse perspectives? 1982 The Mtis lobbied for recognition of Metis rights in Canadas constitution

When the constitution was patriated, it included section 35, which recognizes the Mtis as one of Canadas Aboriginal peoples with rights 1990 Albertas government enacted legislation under which the Mtis received settlements as a permanent land base with the right to

manage their own affairs In addition, an agreement with Albertas government established the right of the Mtis to participate in the development of oil and gas resources on settlement lands 2003 The Supreme Court ruled that the Mtis have the right to hunt and fish, as one of Canadas

Aboriginal peoples under the constitution These rights recognize the unique relationship to the land of the Mtis, based in history and their inherent rights as an Aboriginal people 2004 Two separate negotiations affirmed the rights of Mtis to hunt and fish The agreements ensured that the Mtis could

hunt and fish and that they did not require licenses In 2007, the Alberta government put rules in place that restricted these rights without agreement from the Mtis organizations 2006 In April, the Mtis in Manitoba launched a court case seeking compensation for land

promised, but not delivered, in the Manitoba Act

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