Clinically Relevant Functional Neuroanatomy: Memory and ...

Subcortical Neuroanatomy Russell M. Bauer, Ph.D. University of Florida January 23, 2006 We will cover Limbic System

Subcortical circuits involving basal ganglia Thalamocortical circuitry relevant to cognition Limbic System

Cingulate gyrus Amygdal a Fornix Septum

Olfactory bulb Mammillary body Two Limbic Circuits

Anterior Thalamus Cingulate Gyrus Dorsomedia l Thalamus

Mamillothala mic Tract Mammilary Bodies

Orbitofronta l Fornix Hippocamp us

Medial (Papez) Amygdalofu gal pathways

Uncus Amygdala PRPH Lateral Bauer, Grande, & Valenstein, 2003

Thalamus Blumenfeld, 2002 Blumenfeld, 2002

Blumenfeld, 2002 Basal Ganglia Lateral view Blumenfeld, 2002

ventral striatum Anterolateral view Blumenfeld, 2002

Basal Ganglia Caudate + Putamen = Striatum Putamen + Globus Pallidus = Lenticular nucleus Subthalamic Nucleus Substantia Nigra Nucleus accumbens and ventral

pallidum also considered part of BG Integrated Subcortical Circuitry General Organization of Frontal cortical-striatal-pallidal-thalamiccortical loops

Blumenfeld, 2002 Blumenfeld, 2002 Blumenfeld, 2002

Dorsolateral (Prefrontal) Loop Critical for executive function Damage produces Inflexibility

Planning Problem-solving Goal-directed behavior Orbitofrontal (Limbic) Loop Involved in social

and emotional functioning Damage produces:

Disinhibition Hyperactivity Emotional lability Aggressiveness Reduce selfawareness

Phineas Gage (1823-1861, accident in 1848) Phineas Gages lesion reconstructed (H. Damasio and R. Frank, 1992)

Medial Frontal/Cingulate Loop Important in behavioral activation Damage results in Akinetic mutism

Abulia Impairments in spontaneous initiation of behavior (Burruss, et. al., Radiology, 2000)

Motor Activation/Preparation Heilman, Watson, & Valenstein, 2003 Selective Engagement and Disengagement of Cortex

Thalamus A E G Cortex

B F C D J

I H Nucleus Reticularis Excitatory cortical projections to the thalamus (A) course through the nucleus

reticularis (NR) synapsing on inhibitory thalamic interneurons (B), reticulo-thalamic neurons (C), and providingarborizing collaterals (D). The direct cortical projection to the thalamic interneuron (B) results in the inhibition ofthalamo-cortical projection (E). This inhibition of thalamo-cortical projections results in the disengagement (inhibition) of select cortical areas. Thereticulo-thalamic neuron (C) synapses on, and inhibits, a thalamic interneuron (F), resulting in excitation of thethalamo-cortical neuron (G). This excitation of thethalamo-cortical projection results in theengagement of select cortical areas. The collateral (D) synapses on, and inhibits, a reticulo-thalamic neuron (H) which synapses on a thalamic

interneuron (I). The thalamic interneuron (I) inhibits thethalamo-cortical neuron (J) resulting in thedisengagement of select cortical areas. = Glutamatergic (excitatory) = GABA-ergic (inhibitory) Dashed lines represent inhibited neuron (neuron unable to exert its influence on downstream neuron).

Selective Engagement (Nadeau & Crosson, 1997)

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