Phineas Gage (1823-1861, accident in 1848) Phineas Gages lesion reconstructed (H. Damasio and R. Frank, 1992)
Medial Frontal/Cingulate Loop Important in behavioral activation Damage results in Akinetic mutism
Abulia Impairments in spontaneous initiation of behavior (Burruss, et. al., Radiology, 2000)
Motor Activation/Preparation Heilman, Watson, & Valenstein, 2003 Selective Engagement and Disengagement of Cortex
Thalamus A E G Cortex
B F C D J
I H Nucleus Reticularis Excitatory cortical projections to the thalamus (A) course through the nucleus
reticularis (NR) synapsing on inhibitory thalamic interneurons (B), reticulo-thalamic neurons (C), and providingarborizing collaterals (D). The direct cortical projection to the thalamic interneuron (B) results in the inhibition ofthalamo-cortical projection (E). This inhibition of thalamo-cortical projections results in the disengagement (inhibition) of select cortical areas. Thereticulo-thalamic neuron (C) synapses on, and inhibits, a thalamic interneuron (F), resulting in excitation of thethalamo-cortical neuron (G). This excitation of thethalamo-cortical projection results in theengagement of select cortical areas. The collateral (D) synapses on, and inhibits, a reticulo-thalamic neuron (H) which synapses on a thalamic
interneuron (I). The thalamic interneuron (I) inhibits thethalamo-cortical neuron (J) resulting in thedisengagement of select cortical areas. = Glutamatergic (excitatory) = GABA-ergic (inhibitory) Dashed lines represent inhibited neuron (neuron unable to exert its influence on downstream neuron).
small left ventricular cavity size with hypertrophied papillary muscles . Hyperdynamic systolic function - complete obliteration of the mid and apical cavity in systole . ... a.NYHA class III-IV symptoms despite maximal medical therapy. b.Septal thickness >18mm.
In the United States, the contents of many packaged foods are listed in both U.S. and metric units. Learning Goal . Write a conversion factor for two units that describe the same quantity. ... Equalities and Conversion Factors Within a...
One CTS was designed and tested on a Beta = 0.15, 350 MHz Spoke cavity in the framework of Eurotrans. The main parameters ( Cavity RF frequency sensitivity, Stiffness, Helium Tank relevant dimensions…) are similar with the MAX Spoke cavity.
The children then begin their writing and are given regular opportunities to ensure their work is covering the regular VCOP. How do we start? We start with a stimulus, and this might be: A book (fiction or non-fiction) Poem ....
Stress and Stress-Related Disorders I. What is Stress? A. Stress: the pattern of responses an organism experiences when stimuli disrupt its equilibrium or coping abilities. B. Stressor: an internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress. C. Acute Stress:...
State Aid Construction. The steps and tools available to document and guide local governments through the construction process on state and federal funded contracts are found in the construction section of the State Aid Manual and the State Aid website.
What Risk do Frost Free Hydrants Pose (Bacterial Contamination) Potential backflow of Contaminated water into riser pipe Ground level Water level Potential source of contamination - Manure, septic, pesticide or fertilizer Michigan Water Well Construction and Pump Installation Code (Part...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!