CLINICAL CASES IN ENT AND PICTURE QUIZ CASE 1 A 36-year-old woman presents with recurrent episodes of right-sided tinnitus, hearing loss and vertigo. Episodes typically last between 10-30 minutes. He also describes a 'full' sensation in his right ear. Otoscopy is unremarkable and
the cranial nerve examination is normal. Diagnosis? Meniere's disease More common in middle-aged adults Triad of Recurrent episodes of vertigo, tinnitus and hearing loss (which type?) Episodes last minutes to hours What other features can be seen? Nystagmus and positive Romberg test
Management of acute attacks? Bed rest, vestibular sedatives (Diazepam), Prochlorperazine for N&V Prevention of attacks? Betahistine,? Salt restriction Lets say this patient had absent corneal relfex on examination. Would your differential diagnosis change? Acoustic neuroma
CASE 2 A 31-year-old man presents with bilateral hearing loss and tinnitus. There is a family history of similar problems. Examination of the tympanic membranes: Diagnosis? Otosclerosis What is otosclerosis?
Autosomal dominant. Replacement of normal bone by vascular spongy bone. Onset is usually at 20-40 years conductive deafness tinnitus tympanic membrane - 10% of patients may have a 'flamingo tinge', caused by hyperaemia positive family history CASE 3
Which one of these is the correct technique to stop epistaxis? Picture A- So-called Hippocratic technique Where do most nose bleeds come from? Littles area in the anterior inferior part of the nasal septum.
TYPES OF EPISTAXIS 1) ANTERIOR: Most common site Known as littles area (Kiesselbachs plexus) Nose picking & Infection
2) POSTERIOR: Known as Woodruffs plexus hypertension +/- anticoagulants 3) Lateral wall/Nasal mucosa/Postnasal space
Local Causes: Trauma, Infection, Foreign body, Previous surgery Tumors: Rare Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma -> recurrent unilat. Epistaxis.
Illicit drug use: Cocaine/septal perforation Systemic Causes: Hypertension
Hepatic disease Blood Dyscrasias Endometriosis patient will give history of cyclical epistaxis
Genetic: Osler-weber-Rendu syndrome ( Hereditary Haemorrhagic telangiectasia) Autosomal Dominant elements Vascular malformation where vessel walls lack contractile
Affect respiratory and GI systems Medication: Aspirin, warfarin, heparin, NSAIDS Management of epistaxis? 1) ABC- make sure the patient is adequately
resuscitated 2) Identify the source of bleeding 3) Apply local anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor to nasal mucosa. (Do not use vasoconstrictors if the patient is hypertensive) 4) If bleeding point can be identified, cauterise (either chemical with silver nitrate or electro-cautery) 5) If no source can be identified or cautery has failed: Anterior packing 6) If cannot be localized anteriorly or controlled with
anterior packing: Posterior packing 7) Arterial embolisation or arterial ligation When to admit the patient? If bleeding continues Nasal pack (dont forget Ab cover) Posterior bleed Elderly, frail When sending home, patient education and Naseptin (Avoid with nut allergy!)
CASES 4-8 1) 24 year old primary school teacher. Gradual onset of voice change, worse at the end of day. Vocal nodules 2) 62 year old smoker; 3 month history of sudden onset change in voice. Has a cough. Had one episode of hemoptysis. Left vocal cord paralysis 3) 42 year old female publican; smokes 20 cigarettes a day. Enjoys curry twice a week. Takes Gaviscon. Noticed her voice has become
deeper over last 9 months. Was upset when she was mistaken for a man on the phone during a dating agency interview. Reinkes oedema 4) 30-year old lead singer in a famous rock band. Felt a sharp pain at the level of larynx during the last concert. Was unable to finish the concert. Vocal fold hemorrhagic polyp CASE 9
2 year old child is presenting with fever and otalgia. 1) What is the diagnosis? Acute otitis media 2) Most common pathogens? 50% Viral; Bacterial:
o Streptococcus pneumoniae o Haemophilus influenzae o Moraxella catarrhalis 3) Management? Most likely spontaneous rupture and resolution + management of symptoms. 4) Most serious possible complication? Brain abscess 6 months later, mom is concerned about his hearing and
delayed speech. You can see from the notes he had 2 other episodes of otitis media since last time. Glue ear (Otitis media with effusion) CASE 10 This is the right ear of a 28-yearold man with recurrent ear
discharge. What is the diagnosis? Cholesteatoma Main features: foul smelling discharge hearing loss Other features are determined by local invasion: vertigo facial nerve palsy
cerebellopontine angle syndrome Management: Refer to ENT for consideration of surgical removal PICTURE QUIZ RHINOPHYMA Reinkes oedema (Gross
oedema of the vocal folds) This patient is presenting with renal failure and nose deformity. WEGENERS GRANULOMATOSIS
Shock *Failure in any of these can result in different shock types Needs to function at adequate depends on the individual 'not a set number for all' ie: in some people 100/70 is enough while in others 120/80 is not.
So, electronegativity is key to identifying bond type. Ex. H. 2 Ex. F. 2 Ex. HF. Ex. NaF. Nonpolar. covalent. ΔEN=0. Polar. covalent. Ionic. ΔEN=1.5. Need lead-in to next slide. And establish baseline understanding. So do ex with H2, F2,...
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