REPTILE NOTES What do you think makes a reptile, a reptile? QUICK QUESTION #1 Reptile Basics Definition: cold-blooded vertebrates with lungs, scaly skin, and a special type of egg (amniotic)
All these adaptations allow them to spend their entire life on land The Amniotic Egg The Four Layers Chorion: lines the shell and regulates movement of gases in and out of the shell Yolk Sac: encloses the yolk (provides nutrients) Amnion: encloses the fluid in which the
embryo develops Allantois: stores the embryo wastes until hatching Tuataras (Rhynchocephalia) Tuataras are the only surviving member of this clade.
Live on small islands off the coast of New Zealand Active at night, hunt small animals Gland on top of their head called the third eye because it contains light-sensing cells Used to determine day length, not to see Lizards and Snakes (Squamata) Lizards have legs,
clawed toes, external ears, and moveable eyelids Snakes are legless lizards Toxins Hemotoxins: venom proteins that destroy red blood cells and disrupt blood clotting
Neurotoxins: venom proteins that disrupt nerve transmission Alligators and Crocodiles (Crocodilia? Alligators, crocodiles, and caimans
Live only in tropics and subtropics where weather stays warm Turtles and Tortoises (Chelonia) Turtles live in water, tortoises live on land (generally) 2 parts of a turtle shell: carapace (dorsal) and
plastron (ventral) Back is fused to the carapace Tortoises can have more dome-shaped shells If aquatic, legs have developed into flippers How do they eat?
Many reptiles, many forms of feeding from herbivorous to carnivorous Digestion and Excretion Short, simple, and slow digestive system Urine stored in cloaca
Herbivours eat rocks to help break down food The cloaca can remove large amounts of water from urine and restore it to the body or use glands to excrete salt Many reptiles excrete a nitrogen based waste in the form of uric acid rather than urine Respiration
Reptiles have lungs and inhale and exhale using various mechanisms. Some have flaps of skin that can separate the mouth from the nasal passagesso they can breathe through their nose while their mouth is open And somehave a special tube at the bottom of their mouth that can be extended outward so they can breathe while swallowing Internal Transport
Can be argued that they have a three or four chamber heart (both are correct) Crocodiles have a four chambered heart. All others have a partially divided ventricle How do they survive?
response Senses are well developed Great sense of smellnostrils near the mouth and Jacobsens organ Snakes cant hear (no eardrum).others have only a simple ear
Complex eyes Heat sensing capabilities Some can detect warmth given off of bodies of the small animals they eat Ectothermic: body temperature is determined by the environment Endothermic: body temperature holds at a constant level How do they survive? Movement
Reptiles with legs have larger, stronger limbs than amphibians Reptiles without legs move by pressing large, ventral scales against the ground by expanding and contracting muscles around their ribs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zEto1-ZTbd4 Explain how animals like snakes can move without legs QUICK QUESTION #2 How do they Reproduce? Most reptiles are oviparous with internal fertilization
Some lizards are ovoviviparious ~ they hold the eggs in their bodies until they hatch and then give birth to live babies
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