China: Tang and Song Dynasties

China: Tang and Song Dynasties 1. After it falls, what impact does a civilization have on history? 2. Do belief systems unite or divide people? The Main Idea During Tang and Song rule: China had a strong central government and a

strictly ordered social structure based on Confucianism. The economy was strong. There were great achievements in the arts and architecture. The most advanced society in the world! China influenced other cultures, including that of Japan. Rise and Fall of Dynasties: Tang Dynasty (618-907

AD) After the Han Dynasty declined, China was divided for nearly 400 years, but remained strong In the 600s, Tang Dynasty builds a vast empire Tang rulers force Vietnam, Korea, and Tibet to become tributary states States remain independent, but their rulers had to acknowledge Chinas greater power and send tribute (regular payment)

Tang Dynasty collapses in 907 Caused by government corruption, drought, rebellions Rise and Fall of Dynasties: Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD) China prospered under Song rule (Golden Age) Rapid population growth due to prosperity and new type of rice grown by farmers

China becomes most urbanized country in the world Song Dynasty is weakened by invaders and is finally conquered by the Mongols Rise and Fall of Dynasties Government and Society Government and

structure of society guided by Confucius beliefs such as filial piety (respect for parents/elders) Confucian thought stressed social order based on duty, rank, and proper behavior

Government Tang rulers use the civil service system People who wanted to hold office had to pass difficult examinations that emphasized Confucian philosophy Schools are built to prepare men for the exam Creates a highly educated ruling class Strict Social Order Gentry

Wealthy landowners study Confucian ideas Some become civil servants Peasants Majority of population Farmers work the land and live in small villages Merchants Some become very rich Lower status than peasants because their riches come from

work done by other people Some buy land and educate a son so he can join the gentry Status of Women Women held great authority In the home, women managed family finances, imposed discipline, and

supervised servants However, boys were still valued over girls and when women married they became part of their husbands family Status of Women Footbinding Feet of young girls were bound

with strips of cloth to prevent the feet from growing normally Tiny feet became a symbol of nobility and beauty Extremely painful and cant walk without help Spreads to even the lower classes Reinforces the Confucian tradition that women should remain inside the home

Status of Women Economic Achievements: Expanded Trade Foreign trade expands under both dynasties Chinese merchants trade with India, Persia, and the Middle East Chinese become expert

shipbuilders and emerge as a naval power To improve trade, the government issued paper moneythe worlds first Economic Achievements: Canals Canals were built to encourage trade and improve transportation Grand Canal was the largest linking the Huang

He and Yangzi Rivers Allows food from farms in southern China to be sent north Contributions: Inventions, Literature, and the Arts Arts and writing are highly valued Chinese landscape painting becomes

popular during the Song period Calligraphy (fine handwriting) flourished Contributions: Inventions, Literature, and the Arts Chinese architects created the pagoda (temple with a roof that curved up at the corners)

Contributions: Inventions, Literature, and the Arts Chinese became experts at making porcelain (hard, shiny pottery) Contributions: Inventions, Literature, and the Arts Inventions include:

mechanical clock Gunpowder movable type smallpox vaccine Chinese Influence on Japan The Japanese first learned about Chinese culture through Korea

Japanese nobles bring Chinese ideas and technology back to Japan Adapt language, food, style of dress When the Tang Dynasty declined, the Japanese had begun to blend Chinese ideas with their own to create a unique culture Japanese develop own style of art and writing Chinese Influence on Japan

Confucianism: Founder Originated 551 479 BC in China by Confucius Confucianism: Beliefs Confucianism is a philosophy as opposed to a religion Confucianism deals mainly with living an

ideal life rather than worshipping gods. Proper conduct: everyone has duties and responsibilities to fulfill. Confucianism: Beliefs Respect for parents (filial piety), ancestors, teachers, and rulers (rulers must also respect their subjects).

Do nothing that you would not want other to do to you. Confucianism had a strong influence on government in China. Government positions were given to Confucian scholarscivil service. Confucianism: Beliefs Confucianism also helped relax the rigid

class structure in China by emphasizing human conduct rather than rank. Confucius believed social order comes from respect, kind acts, and generosity. Confucianism: Sacred Text

Analects-ideas of Confucius gathered by his students A guide to ethical principles of behavior, moral judgments, and social order.

Taoism (Daoism): Founder Laozi (He lived at the same time as Confucius) Taoism (Daoism): Beliefs tao = the right way to live. Taoism emphasizes finding inner peace by living simply and in harmony with nature.

Taoists also believe that government is unnatural and we are better off with as little government as possible. Taoism (Daoism): Sacred Text The Way of VirtueLaozi is believed to be the author Zhuang-zi(written several centuries later)

fables, sayings, and dialogues Questions to Study Why are the Tang and Song Dynasties referred to as a golden age? In what ways did Chinese culture affect the cultures of Korea and Japan? What role did women play in the Tang and Song dynasties?

Practice! According to the map, which conclusion about China during the Tang and Song dynasties is accurate? A) Most trade routes began in Beijing. B) Chinas overland trade routes connected China to Japan C) The areas under the control of these dynasties did not change. D) China traded extensively with other nations and regions. Practice!

Block printing, gunpowder, and the abacus were developed. The compass was discovered and used to improve the determination of direction when sailing. These advances are associated with the A) Tang and Sung dynasties of China B) Gupta Empire in India C) Ghana and Mali civilizations of Africa D) Byzantine Empire in the Middle East

Practice! The Age of Pericles in Athens, the Gupta Empire in India, and the Tang dynasty in China all experienced a golden age with A) Advancements in the principles of democratic governments B) Outstanding contributions in the arts and sciences C) The end of foreign domination

D) The furthest expansion of their borders Practice! The Tang dynasty of China, the Gupta Empire of India, and the Mali Empire of Africa were similar in that each experienced a period of A) B) C) D)

Prosperity and artistic creativity Feudalism and oppression War and constant invasion Mercantilism and industrial expansion Practice! The Tang Dynasty in China, the Gupta Empire in India, and the city-state of Athens in Greece during their golden ages were known as eras

of A) B) C) D) Major industrial development Intense nationalism Economic poverty and political upheaval Artistic and intellectual achievement

Practice! One way in which the Five Relationships, the Ten Commandments, and the Eightfold Path are similar is that they A) B) C) D)

Promoted polytheism Establish gender equality Provide codes of behavior Describe secularism Practice ! Showing respect for parents Maintaining family honor Honoring all elders Which term is most closely related to these

three actions? A) Nirvana B) Animism C) Filial piety D) Hadj (Hajj) Practice! The five relationships taught by Confucius encouraged people to A)

B) C) D) Improve their position in life Maintain social and political order Respect and worship nature Serve the needs of religious leaders

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