Chapter 6 A Cultural Approach to Child Development

Child Development A Cultural Approach Chapter 6 Early Childhood Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (1 of 6) 6.1 Describe the physical growth and change that takes place during early childhood.

6.2 Describe the changes in brain development that take place during early childhood and the aspects of brain development that explain infantile amnesia. 6.3 Identify the main nutritional deficiencies of early childhood 6.4 Identify the primary sources of injury, illness, and mortality during early childhood in developed and developing countries Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (2 of 6)

6.5 Describe changes in gross and fine motor abilities during early childhood 6.6 Describe the development of handedness and identify the consequences and cultural views of left-handedness. 6.7 Explain the features of Piagets preoperational stage of cognitive development. 6.8 Explains the advances in information processing in early childhood Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (3 of 6) 6.9 Explain what theory of mind is and the evidence for how it develops during early childhood. 6.10 Identify the ways that cultural learning takes place in early childhood. 6.11 Identify the features that are most important in preschool quality and explain how they reflect cultural values. 6.12 Describe early intervention programs and their outcomes. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Learning Objectives (4 of 6) 6.13 Explain how advances in vocabulary and grammar occur in early childhood. 6.14 Describe how children learn pragmatics in early childhood, and identify to what extent these social rules are culturally based. 6.15 Identify advances in emotional understanding and self-regulation during early childhood. 6.16 Describe moral development in early childhood, including empathy, modeling, and morality as cultural learning.

6.17 Describe the roles that parents and peers play in gender socialization, and explain how gender schemas lead to self-socialization. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (5 of 6) 6.18 Describe the four types of parenting styles and identify the cultural limitations of this model. 6.19 Describe the main cultural variations in how parents discipline young children, and explain how cultural context influences childrens

responses to discipline. 6.20 Explain the progression of increasing independence across the social stages of infancy through early childhood. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Learning Objectives (6 of 6) 6.21 Identify the most common features of sibling relationships worldwide, and describe how children with no siblings differ from other children. 6.22 Explain how the quality of friendships changes

from toddlerhood to early childhood, and describe the role of play and aggression in young childrens friendships. 6.23 Identify the rates and consequences of media use in early childhood. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Physical Development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights, Reserved Growth from Age 3 to 6: Bodily

Growth Children grow about 2 to 3 inches a year and add 5 to 7 pounds Boys slightly taller and heavier than girls Primary teeth replace primary baby teeth Tooth decay varies by country Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Brain Development (1 of 2) Size of brain increases gradually during early childhood

Frontal lobe growth underlies advances in emotional regulation, foresight, and planned behavior Corpus callosum has myelination peak during early childhood Cerebellum has increased myelination as well, which helps with balance Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Brain Development (2 of 2) Reticular formation and hippocampus also have hit peak period of myelination

Hippocampus involved with memory Myelination not complete until age 5 Infantile amnesia inability to remember anything that happened prior to age 2 Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.1 Brain Development in Early Childhood In which structures is myelination completed by age 5? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Health and Safety (1 of 3) Children are less vulnerable to health threats compared to earlier years Children in developing countries remain vulnerable to some illness and diseases Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Health and Safety (2 of 3) Slow physical growth corresponds with food consumption diminishing

Appetites vary day-to-day but environment drives food preference Children in developed countries eat too much unhealthy food In the U.S. the most common nutritional deficiency is calcium Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Health and Safety (3 of 3) Developing countries face malnutrition as a norm Lack of protein experienced by 25% of

children Can lead to marasmus and kwashiorkor Iron deficiency (anemia) is experienced by majority of children Causes fatigue, irritability, and difficulty sustaining attention Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.2 Rates of Overweight and Obesity in Early Childhood, by Ethnicity

Why might there be different rates of overweight and obesity across ethnic groups Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Illness and Injury (1 of 2) Developing countries causes of death are Illness, disease, malaria, measles, and pneumonia Malnutrition is responsible for half of early childhood deaths Developed countries have vaccinations,

adequate food, and medical care Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Illness and Injury (2 of 2) Early childhood a time of high activity High rates of injuries Most common cause of injury are motor vehicle accidents Higher injury rates in developing countries Disease a larger problem than injuries

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.3 Reduction in Early Childhood Mortality Rates, Select Countries Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Gross and Fine Motor Skills Gross motor skills extend abilities that appeared earlier Some gender differences

Fine motor development allows refinement of skills Drawing shapes, letters, and sentences Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Handedness Preferences for handedness can be seen prenatally Genetics Adopted children resemble biological parents more than adoptive parents

Identical twins likely to differ Culture Historically left-handedness is considered evil Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cognitive Development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights, Reserved Piagets Preoperational Stage Child begins to internalize images and use

symbols Inability to perform operations Including Conservation Egocentrism Classification Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Conservation Children lack the ability to understand conservation This lack of understanding could be due to

Centration focusing on one aspect of a problem while excluding others Focusing on what is visible Static reasoning Irreversibility reverse an action mentally Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.4 Various substances used in Piagets Conservation task (1 of 2) What cognitive limitations in young children lead to mistakes in these tasks? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.4 Various substances used in Piagets Conservation task (2 of 2) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Egocentrism/Classification Egocentrism inability to distinguish between ones own perspective and another persons perspective An aspect of egocentrism is animism attribute human thoughts and feelings to

inanimate objects and forces Classification objects can be a part of more than one cognitive group Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.5 Piagets Three Mountains Task How does performance on this task indicate egocentrism? Copyright 2016, 2012. Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Evaluating Piagets Theory

Criticisms of Piaget focus on two main ideas Underestimated childrens abilities Studies have shown young children can do conservation task Can perform modified egocentrism task Less animistic than Piaget suggested Development is more continuous and less stagelike Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Information processing in Early Childhood

Cognitive abilities develop as attention span, memory capacity and executive function increase Executive function refers to intentional control of mental processes Two attention systems are important in the development of executive functioning Orienting system Executive attention system Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Development of Theory of

Mind (1 of 2) The ability to understand the thinking processes in oneself and others Seen in joint attention and pretend play Age differences seen in the false belief task Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.6 The Sally-Anne Task (1 of 2) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Figure 6.6 The Sally-Anne Task (2 of 2) The original Sally-Anne task was designed to measure whether young children understood certain aspects of the nature of beliefsnamely that beliefs come from certain sources and that beliefs can change. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Development of Theory of Mind (2 of 2) Improvement in theory of mind occurs between 3 and 4 Increase in cognitive flexibility as a child

ages Some link to development of theory of mind and cultural values Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cultural Learning in Early Childhood Early childhood is when children have capacity for learning culturally specific skills Can include food preparation, child care, and animal care In developed countries may prepare grocery list,

organize, count money, or hold conversations Two factors impact differences in cultural learning Time apart from families in developed countries Complexity of adult activity in the economy Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Early Childhood Education Traditionally begins at age 7 Consistently beginning earlier in developed countries Developing countries slightly later but

changing Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Importance of Preschool Quality (1 of 3) Preschool is seen as beneficial Some effects include Higher verbal skills, stronger performance on memory, and listening comprehension Children from low-income families who attend preschool score higher on school readiness

Social children are more independent and confident Negative effects include less compliance, less respectful of authority figures and more aggression Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Importance of Preschool Quality (2 of 3) Important features of high quality centers include Education and training of teachers Class size and child-teacher ratio Age-appropriate materials and activities

Teacher-child interactions Focus for high quality is developmentally appropriate educational practice Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Importance of Preschool Quality ( 3 of 3) The Montessori approach has demonstrated some effectiveness Children in Montessori preschools were more advanced in cognitive and social

development Approach encourages active learning Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Cross-Cultural Variation Japanese preschools value and teach cooperation and sharing. Culture stresses group involvement and not academics Preschool and kindergartens in developed countries are influenced by a sociocultural

approach Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Preschool as a Cognitive Intervention (1 of 2) Early intervention programs focus on cognitive development especially for at-risk children Project Head Start began in 1965 Can receive up to two years of preschool Some debate the effectiveness of the program

Children less likely to repeat a grade or placed in special education Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Preschool as a Cognitive Intervention (2 of 2) High Scope Preschool Project Full-day, two-year intervention program Similar IQ effects as Project Head Start but other long-term effects Increased chance of graduating from high school

and attending college Less likely to become pregnant or arrested Increased income and family stability Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.7 Major Findings of the High Scope Preschool Study High Scope participants showed better academic performance, IQ scores, and earning potential and were less likely to be arrested later in life than other children. Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Language Development Language continues to progress at a rapid pace Early childhood is a sensitive period for language development There are cultural variations in fast mapping Eastern languages learn verbs first Western languages learn nouns first Grammar continues to develop so that by age 4 about 90% of children use correct grammar

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Figure 6.8 Berkos Language Study This scenario is similar to the one posed to children in Berkos study. How do the results of Berkos study show young childrens grasp of grammar? Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Pragmatics: Social and Cultural Rules of Language Pragmatics refers to the social rules of

language Understanding begins through gestures By age two some understanding of basic conversation By age 4 more sensitive to partners in conversation Reading practices play a role in development Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Emotional and Social Development

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights, Reserved Emotional Regulation (1 of 2) Emotional self-regulation important for social relationships Extreme emotional expressions decline with age Effortful control allows children to focus attention on managing emotions Under control can increase risk of externalizing problems Overcontrol can increase risk of internalizing problems

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Emotional Regulation (2 of 2) Effortful control between the extremes is important Emotional control development important in Eriksons stage of initiative vs guilt Culture plays a role in determining optimal levels of emotional control Delay of gratification is important Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Moral Development (1 of 3) Sociomoral emotions develop due to awareness of expected behavior for the childs culture Empathy important for moral development Better at perspective taking Promotes prosocial behavior Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Moral Development (2 of 3)

Expectations of culture increase Cultural similarities in when children grasp moral standards Cultural differences in what is viewed as moral Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Moral Development (3 of 3) Morality can be learned through custom complexes Modeling is a variation of custom complexes

found in American research Children learn by watching others who are rewarded and punished for behaviors Moral reasoning has some rudimentary beginnings in early childhood Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Gender Development (1 of 2) Ages 3 to 4 gender identity intensifies Ages 6 to 7 gender constancy is attained Parents and peers play important role in gender socialization

Fathers more insistent about gender roles Peers reinforce gender-appropriate behaviors Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Gender Development (2 of 2) Gender socialization leads to gender schemas Behaviors and activities categorized as male or female Tendency to confirm schemas and ignore inconsistency

Self-socialization is maintaining consistency between behavior and schemas Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parenting Styles Most scholars study parenting styles along two dimensions Demandingness degree to which parents set down rules and expectations for behavior Responsiveness degree to which parents

are sensitive to their childrens needs and express warmth Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 6.1 Parenting Styles and the Two Dimensions of Parenting Parenting style Demandingness (High)

Demandingness Low Responsiveness (High) Authoritative Permissive Responsiveness

(Low) Authoritarian Disengaged Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Table 6.2 Outcomes Associated with Parenting Styles in White Middle-Class Families Authoritative Authoritarian

Permissive Disengaged Independent Dependent Irresponsible Impulsive

Creative Passive Conforming Behavior problems Self-assured Conforming

Immature Early sex, drugs Socially skilled Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parenting Styles (2 of 2) Parenting styles and development more compel

Bidirectional effects Impact of evocative genotype and environment effects Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Parenting Styles in Other Cultures Cultural differences in traditional cultures Asian culture filial piety Latino culture respeto/ familismo

Cultures have different forms of warmth and control Within U.S. society there is in how warmth and control are defined and displayed Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Discipline and Punishment Cultures differ on systems of discipline for misbehavior Western culture may emphasize authoritative approach including time out Japanese emphasize withdrawal of love and

shame Culture influences consequences of discipline Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Physical Punishment and Its Consequences Physical punishment (corporal punishment) is common in most parts of the world Many studies (Western countries) have found detrimental effects of physical

punishment Highlights the importance cultural context in childrens response to parents behavior Tongan children Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Child Abuse and Neglect (1 of 2) Physical abuse physical harm Emotional abuse ridicule and humiliation Sexual abuse sexual contact Neglect do not meet basic needs of child

Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Child Abuse and Neglect (2 of 2) Children risk factors Difficult temperament Unusually aggressive Parental risk factors

Poverty Unemployment Single motherhood History of abuse (spousal included) Assistance can come from foster care and group home Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Childhood stages

Anthropologists classified social stage development using Meads classification scheme Similarities worldwide in how children are socialized More nurturance required when younger By 5 or 6 more freedom and time spent outside of home Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Siblings and Only Children

Sibling relationships include jealousy ambivalence Being an only child has shown mixed results higher self-esteem, social maturity, and intelligence less successful social relationships (American) Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Peers and Friends Children are allotted more freedom to explore the social world from toddlerhood to early childhood Tend to see increased gender segregation in early childhood Cultural differences in age groups in early childhood peer groups Children in West tend to be same age, in developing countries tends to be mixed age groups Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Play in Early Childhood Solitary and parallel play decline while cooperative and social play begin to increase Increased sex segregation in play Increased experience in preschool can lead to increased success in social play Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Aggression

Instrumental aggression wants something and uses aggression to get it Hostile aggression signs of anger and harm Relational aggression involves damaging another persons reputation Physical aggression tends to decline Verbal and relational aggression tend to increase Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved Media Use in Early Childhood Children watch 1.5 to 3 hours of television a

day Effects include increased aggressive behavior and susceptibility to advertising Positive effects include higher language and math skills Electronic gaming is increasing with boys playing more than girls More research on music may need to be done Copyright 2017, 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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