CHAPTER 5 LANGUAGE CHAPTER 5: LANGUAGE Language: A system of communication through speech Literary Tradition: a system of written communication Common in many languages Hundreds lack literary traditions Official Language: used by government ( laws, road signs, money, etc)
Each countries designates at least one Some have multiple Not all citizens speak official language Common in colonized countries Origin and Diffusion of English Spoken by one-half billion people (2 nd most spoken in world) Speakers distributed around the world Official language in 50 countries, more than any other language
2 billion people live in a country where English is official language ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES Fig. 5-1: English is the official language in 42 countries, including some in which it is not the most widely spoken language. It is also used and understood in many others. THE HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN 10 MINUTES The History of the English Language
ENGLISH COLONIES England migrated with their language during colonization English is official language in most former British colonies 17 t h Century: English diffused to North America Principal language of North America by 18 t h century British Colonization 17 th Century: Ireland 18 th Century: South Asia, South Pacific 19 th Century: southern Africa
United States 20 th Century: Philippines ORIGINS OF ENGLISH IN ENGLAND Celts, 2000 BC: spoke Celtic German Invasion, 450 AD Angles: southern Denmark Jutes: northern Denmark Saxons: northwestern Germany Anglo Saxons INVASIONS OF ENGLAND
5 TH 11 T H CENTURIES Fig. 5-2: The groups that brought what became English to England included Jutes, Angles, Saxons, and Vikings. The Normans later brought French vocabulary to English. ORIGINS OF ENGLISH IN ENGLAND GERMAN INVASION England: Angles Land corner (angle) of Germany Modern English evolved from language spoken by Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
Isolation from other Germanic groups allowed languages to evolve independently Other groups later invaded England, adding to the evolution of the English language, ex: Vikings NORMAN INVASION 1066 Normans from Normandy, France invaded French became official language for 300 years Royal family, nobles, judges, clergy spoke
French Majority of people did NOT speak French Parliament changed official language back to English in 1362 French and English languages merged to Germanic Sky language Horse man woman create a new
French Celestial Equestrian Masculine feminine DIALECTS OF ENGLISH Dialect: regional variation of a language Vocab, spelling, pronunciation Speakers of one dialect can understand
another When speakers migrate, dialects may develop English migration to North America and through colonization Dialects of English: U.S., India, Pakistan, Australia, etc Dialects can also be found within individual countries US & England: southern & northern dialects DIALECTS OF ENGLISH One dialect is usually recognized as the
standard language Most acceptable for govt, business, education and mass communication British Received Pronunciation (BRP) Recognized as standard for English-speaking world Upper-class Britons living in London area Used by politicians, broadcasters, and actors DIALECTS IN ENGLAND Wide variety of dialects Three invading groups, distinct regional dialects
Later invasion by the French 5 distinct regional dialects Londons emerged as the standard language for writing & speech Used by upper-class residents Home to Cambridge & Oxford Diffusion encouraged by printing press, 1476 Grammar books & dictionaries in 18 th century Rules for English language based off Londons dialect
Dialects today: Northern, Midland and Southern OLD AND MIDDLE ENGLISH DIALECTS Fig. 5-3: The main dialect regions of Old English before the Norman invasion persisted to some extent in the Middle English dialects through the 1400s. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH English language brought to America by British colonists, 17 th
Century 17 th Century English became the norm in colonial America Later immigrants from other countries adopted English to be the language of Colonial America DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND SPELLING Isolation: Atlantic Ocean 18 t h and 19 t h Centuries: English in the US & English in England evolved independently
Few residents travelled between the countries Vocabulary American settlers discovered new objects: needed new names Landscape, animals (chipmunk), Native American names (canoe) New inventions: elevator vs lift, flashlight vs torch DIFFERENCES IN VOCABULARY AND SPELLING Spelling
Noah Webster creator of 1 st American dictionary/grammar books Determined to develop a unique American dialect of English Spelling & grammar reforms would help establish a national language, reduce cultural dependence on England and inspire national pride Honor vs honour, color vs colour, defense vs defence
DIFFERENCES IN PRONUNCIATION Geographic Concepts: Isolation Pronunciation has changed more in England than in the US A and R pronounced in US the same way they used to be pronounced in Britain during 17 t h Century Standard dialect in Britain emerged AFTER colonization of America, 18 t h Century Colonists left England before London English became the standard or proper English
DIALECTS IN THE UNITED STATES Major differences in US dialects is from differences in dialects of original settlers American Colonies New England: settlers from England: Puritans from East Anglia in SE England SouthEastern: of settlers from SE England, diverse group of social backgrounds: prisoners, religious & political refugees Amy Walkers Dialects
Stone p.159 Did the mayor of Houston order an evacuation or not? Ambiguity allows policy makers to placate both sides in a conflict by 'giving the rhetoric to one side and the decision to the other.'… leaders can perform the...
This local support is one of the key features of the GTA. It means that you'll be able to find support for your global learning practice both during and after the course. The Level 1 GTA course combines foundational learning...
Monash Engineering Research and Industry Training (MERIT) Student Enhancement programs Students have access to a range of programs which enrich their learning experience in addition to their undergraduate degree Components of MERIT Program MERIT Leadership Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP)...
Investment / Expense Threshold. Expenses are costs of resources consumed in operating and maintaining DoD. Normally financed with O&M funds. Investments are acquisitions of DoD capital assets. Normally financed with Procurement funds. System cost >= $250,000. Computer buys need careful...
Discussion of Exit Date Data. Since this is an update of data from a previous discussion on PY17 Q4 data, do you see any improvement from your state? If yes, what changes/actions do you think account for these improvements? If...
ACTIVITY: the masks we wear. Create a mask that shows the different "faces" you present to society.. On the . outside of the mask, put the faces you show your friends, family, teachers, for example. You can show these behaviours...
Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain coordinating the eyes or a disorder of one or more muscles, as in any process that causes a dysfunction of the usual direction and power of the muscle. why squint is...
Impedance and Reactance Resistance Inductance Capacitance In general, Z = Impedance Definitions for Impedance Impedance in the frequency domain is analogous to resistance, capacitance, and inductance in the time domain The imaginary part of the impedance is called the "Reactance"...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!