Chapter 3: Multicellular Diversity

Chapter 3: Multicellular Diversity Sections 3.1-3.3 Introduction No Two Alike Activity (p. 89) Using a 6-sided die complete the activity Answer the questions at the bottom of the page

3.1 Algae & Terrestrial Plants Algae can be a unicellular or multicellular photosynthetic, aquatic Protist Multicellular Algae = seaweed and can be classified by their colour (brown/red/green) Unicellular Algae = plant like Protist

which we learned from section 2.4 (euglenophytes, chrysophytes, diatoms, dinoflagellates) The Multicellular Algae Algae is a major part of marine life They are plantlike autotrophic protists that facilitate life for many marine organisms as well as for humans

There are about 13, 000 species out there, and they come in a variety of lengths and colors, ranging from Red, Brown, and Green All forms of Algae have several structures which equip them for survival Brown Algae Are the largest and most complex protists

Has brown and yellow appearance as it contains large amounts of Chlorophyll a and c Dont have true leaves/roots, but special tissues called holdfast that help it to anchor onto rocks /shells Have a stem-like structure called

a stipe, where leaf-like blades collect light E & undergo photosynthesis Red Algae Were one of the 1st multicellular organisms on earth Different from other algae because they dont have flagellas

They contain many pigments, including chlorophyll a but also phycoerythrin - which gives it its red colour by reflecting red light and absorbing blue light Being this colour, they thrive in the depths of the ocean Green Algae

Are aquatic organisms, found in fresh water and sometimes salt water Are structurally diverse some are unicellular with flagella or found in ball-shaped colonies that roll through the water Are the MOST Plant-like of the algae Have same types of chlorophyll and colour of plants Have cellulose in their plant walls for photosynthesis

Activity 3.1 How might climate change affect Giant Kelp? Read p. 92 Complete the discussion questions (#1-3) in response to the data provided The Shift to Land

The hypothesis that green algae are the closest evolutionary relatives to plants is based on several factors, such as Both have chlorophyll a and b in their cells Cellulose cell walls Both store food energy as starch Similar DNA sequences

Adaptations to Life on Land Read pgs. 93 94 Summarize the adaptations taken for plants to live on land Highlight concepts of: Plant embryos Vascular Tissue, leaves, and Roots

Alternation of Generation 3.2 The Plant Kingdom Introduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gJrOATCtV-k Non-Vascular Plants: Bryophytes These plants include 3 phyla of plants: Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts These plants DO NOT have vascular tissue and depend on diffusion & osmosis to transport

nutrients into their cells Usually grow in areas of low, tangles, vegetation that holds water in like a sponge They have NO ROOTS, but rhizoids that are similar and grow in such a way because they are close to the ground Non-vascular Plants: Bryophytes

Bryophyte Mosses Liverworts Hornworts Photograph Description Importance Bryophyte Life Cycle

http:// www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/content/moss.html Seedless Vascular Plants Are different from non-vascular plants in that: They have different tissue that lets them grow tall Their sporophyte generation is the dominant stage of their life cycle Their gametophytes were reduced to tiny

structures that still depended on water for sexual reproduction These plants include Whisk ferns, Club moss, Horsetails, and Ferns. Life Cycle of a Fern (vascular plant) Seed-Producing Vascular Plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

There are 2 types of plants that grow in large areas because of how their seeds are distributed They include: gymnosperms and angiosperms These seeds allow plants to reproduce sexually based on their anatomy, with the help of wind, and animals (like bees) Gymnosperms

Are a vascular plant with non-enclosed seeds This means that their seeds are exposed on the surface of cone scales These seeds produce no fruit or flowers but cones, that are found on conebaring trees like pines, firs, spruces, cedars, redwood, etc.

Often found in cool boreal ecosystems (Canada) that dominate woody vegetation Gymnosperms: Reproduction A cone = a gymnosperm structure that contains male or female reproductive parts Male Cones Soft structure Short lived

Female Cones Hard structure Live longer Made of scales, where eggs develop Sexual reproduction of cones involves the transport of sperm from the male cone into the unfertilized egg of the female cone using Pollen grains that become transported by the wind Gymnosperms: Reproduction http://

videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/30697-assignment-discovery-gymnosperms-video.ht m https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2gWEgrMwMe0 Angiosperms Are vascular plants And commonly known as Flowering plants, as they reproduce using flowers and their seeds are contained in a fruit

90% of all plants are angiosperms = HUGE DIVERSITY and VARIETY Angiosperms The flower if an angiosperm structure that is specialized for sexual reproduction Few angiosperms have separate male / female plants

Often they have BOTH Male and Female parts within one plant Angiosperm: Reproduction https:// www.youtube.co m/watch? v=H_UyDtaa8Ow Angiosperms: Classification

Often divided into 2 groups based on the structure of a seed leaf (aka cotyledon) A cotyledon is a structure in the embryo that helps to nourish the plant as it first starts to grow Angiosperms with 1 cotyledon = monocots

Angiosperms with 2 cotyledon = dicots Angiosperms: Classification Monocots Dicots 1 cotyledon 2 cotyledon Tend to have flowers and fruits divided into threes or multiples of

threes Tend to have flowers and fruits divided into Four and Five or multiples of fours and fives Veins in their leaves are usually parallel Veins in their leaves are usually net-like Angiosperms: Classification

The Fungus Kingdom Section 3.3 Introduction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zb4y40kFhL4 Fungi Fungi (fungus singular) are a stationary heterotrophic eukaryotic organism whose cell walls contain chitin

They get nutrients by releasing digestive enzymes into their surroundings and then absorb the digestive nutrients into their cells Structure of Fungi A few types of fungi like yeast are unicellular But most fungi are multicellular and very

different structurally from one another yet their bodies are generally the same Structure of Fungi The basic structural units that are in the body of a multicellular are called Hyphae In a mushroom, the hyphae are densely packed together

The bulk of the organism is in the form of a branching network called a mycelium Mycelia live in soil and decomposing matter The parts of the fungus that are above the ground are called the fruiting body Fungal Nutrition Using pg. 106 complete the chart below Types of Fungal Nutrition

Parasitic Predatory Mutualistic Saprobial Description Fungal Reproduction Many fungal reproduce sexually & asexually Asexual can occur from spore production

use budding for reproduction: where a smaller cell develops while attached to a parent cell Taxonomists classify fungi based on whether they reproduce sexually or asexually Fungal Classifications * Using pgs. 107 109 complete the table with key points of each fungi Fungi Zygospore

Chytrids Sac Fungi Club Fungi Imperfecti Fungi

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