Chapter 2 & 3

Driver Test and Driver Safety CHAPTER 2 & 3 KNOWLEDGE TEST & ROAD TEST Must receive an 80% or higher. After an applicant passes the knowledge test and vision screening and, if applicable, an approved behind-the-wheel course, the MVC will validate his/her permit so that he/she can practice. GDL permit holders under 21 years of age must have a minimum of six months

supervised practice driving prior to a road test appointment. TEST VEHICLE REQUIREMENTS For the road test, an applicant must have a vehicle with a valid inspection sticker, a valid registration document and a valid insurance ID card for that vehicle (unless covered by the BPU or federal DOT regulations). The vehicle may not have any obstructions or consoles that prevent the examiner from reaching the foot or parking brakes. The applicant must also have a valid permit and be accompanied by a licensed driver.


Driving in reverse Following other vehicles Nearing corners and intersections Parking (parallel) Sitting properly Starting a vehicle Steering properly Stopping at signs Stopping smoothly Turning Turning around Using the horn Yielding right-of-way NJ SEAT BELT LAW

The New Jersey seat belt law requires all frontseat occupants of passenger vehicles operated in NJ to wear a seat belt. The motorist is responsible for all passengers under 18 years of age. Front seat passengers over 18 years of age are responsible for themselves. GDL drivers must use seat belts and require every passenger in the car to wear a seat belt. CHILD RESTRAINT LAWS

Children up to age eight or a weight of 80 pounds must ride in a federally approved safety or booster seat in the rear seat of the vehicle. If there is no rear seat, the child must sit in the front seat secured by a safety or booster seat. Children under age eight and over 80 pounds must be in a rear seat and use a seat belt. If there is no rear seat, the child must be properly belted in the front seat. Failure to comply with this law could mean a $54 fine and court costs. CAR CONDITION

Always check the condition of the vehicle for defects and items that may need repair. Brakes Braking should be smooth and quick. If the driver heres squeaking or grinding the brakes should be brought in for service. Conventional and drum brakes should be pumped after the car has been driven through water to prevent locking.

A motorist should be able to stop a car within 25 ft traveling 20 mph. ABS (Antilock Braking System) should be tested by apply consistent and steady pressure on them to check effectiveness. The steering wheel should never be turned while applying pressure to ABS brakes. BRAKES CAR CONDITION Brake lights Head lights

Make sure they are not broken and all lights illuminate. Check your lights by turning them on when parked in front of a wall. If other motorists flash their lights while a motorists lights are on low beam, it could mean that the lights are out of line. Horn Steering

The front end should not vibrate on a straight road Should not be too much play in the steering wheel CAR CONDITION Tail lights Tires

Bumps, cuts, or bad treads can cause blowouts. Any thumping or irregular sounds can signals a blowout. Check the owners manual for correct tire pressure. Check the tire pressure frequently especially during the cold months. Properly inflated tires save money on fuel. Turn Signals Should be able to hear the clicking and see the lighted arrows flash on the dashboard. In the even turn signals do not work, hand signals are appropriate substitutions.

DAMAGED TIRES CAR CONDITION Windshield Should have functioning windshield wipers. Should be clean inside and out and should have no chips or cracks. Snow/ice

All snow and ice must be removed from the car before it is moved. Snow and ice on cars while driving can cause immense property damage or injury. DAMAGED WINDHSIELD IS THIS LEGAL? STARTING A PARKED CAR

Before stepping into the car check the perimeter for loose objects and people. All windows should be clean and nothing should block a motorists vision. The seat must be adjusted so a motorist can reach all pedals and controls easily. Inside and outside rearview mirrors should be adjusted. (clear blind spots)

As the passing vehicle disappears from the inside rearview mirror, a motorist should be able to see its front bumper in the outside rearview mirror. Seat belts and shoulder harnesses should be fastened so that they are firm and comfortable. The vehicle should be in park or neutral gear and the parking brake should be set. Doors should be locked. GOOD POSTURE HAND POSITION

Think of the steering wheel as the face of a clock. Grip the steering wheel at the 9 and 3 oclock positions for standard driving. Never turn the wheel while gripping it from the inside of the rim, hand facing inward. Keep a firm grip on the steering wheel tightening the grip as the speed increases. However, do not grip the steering wheel to tight. Both hands should be kept on the wheel at all times except when shifting and giving turning signals. HAND POSITION HAND POSITION

Hand-over-hand steering Permits the driver to make steering adjustments ranging from very minor up to a half turn of the wheel, while keeping both hands on the wheel. When moving through a full turn the hands may move as much as 165 degrees. The driver initiates the turn by pushing the wheel up from the 9 or 3 oclock position toward 12 oclock, and the opposite hand

crosses over and down to the 9 or 3 oclock position as appropriate to provide additional input or to stabilize steering. Hands then return to the original position. When coming out of a turn allow the wheel to slip (controlled slip) through your fingers until the car straightens itself out. HAND OVER HAND STEERING STOPPING DISTANCE Stopping Distance depends on many variables including, reaction time, weather and road conditions, vehicle weight, brake conditions, condition and type of tires, roadway conditions, and

speed. The faster a vehicle is traveling the longer it will take to stop. STOPPING DISTANCES Speed Reaction Distance Braking Distance Total 10 11 ft.

6 ft. 17 ft. 20 22 25 47 30 33 55

88 40 44 105 149 50 55 188 243

60 66 300 366 70 77 455 532 STOPPING DISTANCES

Applying steady and gentle pressure to the brakes is ideal to bring the vehicle to a controlled stop. You should never slam on the brakes unless absolutely necessary. The right foot should be used for both acceleration and braking. The left foot is used to press the clutch if the car has a manual transmission. DRIVING SIGNALS

Motorists should always use a proper signal when turning, changing lanes, stopping or slowing down. The signal should be turned on 100 ft. before the turn and immediately turned off after the turn is completed. Hand signals are accepted in a situation where turning signals are inoperable. The arm should be extended out of the window and then bent towards the wheels/pavement to signal a stop The arm should be extended out of the window and bent at

a 90 degree angle towards the sky to signal a right turn. The arm should be extended out of the window and left straight to signal a left turn HAND SIGNALS DRIVING IN REVERSE

Always be sure the path is clear by checking your mirrors before you place the car in reverse. By steering the wheel to the right in reverse the back end of the car will move towards the right. By steering the wheel to the left in reverse the back end of the car will move towards the left. To drive in reverse, a motorists head and body should be turned to the right until he/she can see clearly through the back window of the vehicle without the use of mirrors. The motorists right hand and arm should be placed over the back of the front passenger seat; the left hand should grasp the top of the steering wheel. A vehicle should be driven slowly in reverse (typically 2-4 mph). If the steering wheel must be turned while in reverse both hands must turn the wheel while using the mirrors to navigate. Palming the wheel while

in reverse is dangerous and can be a factor for failing the road test. DRIVING IN REVERSE TURNING Before Turning, a motorist should always:

Use the mirrors to look behind and to both sides for other vehicles to see if it is safe to turn Check for less visible vehicles, such as motorcycles, bicycles and mopeds Signal first and then move into the proper lane Slow down before reaching an intersection Keep a steady speed and follow pavement markings Always stay in the same lane until the turn is finished Make sure turn signal is turned off after the turn is completed TURNING The 3-Point turn (K-Turn)

Used when turning around Move to the right edge of the road Choose a safe spot with good visibility in both directions If there is no other traffic, the motorist should signal left and move forward slowly while turning the steering wheel to the left. The vehicle should be stopped several inches from the left curb or street edge. The motorist should then signal right and back slowly while turning the steering wheel to the right, stopping several inches from the right curb or street edge. The motorist should next move the vehicle forward, signaling left,

while turning the steering wheel to the left. Finally, the motorist should straighten the vehicles wheels as it faces in the direction he/she wants to go. PARKING Motorists should always set the hand brake and put the vehicle in park or, with a manual transmission, in reverse or low gear. When parking a vehicle facing down hill: The hand brake should be set and the vehicles wheels should be turned toward the curb. The vehicle should be in park or, with a manual transmission, in reverse.

When parking a vehicle facing uphill: the hand brake should be set and the vehicles wheels should be turned away from the curb. The vehicle should be in park or, with a manual transmission, in low. PARKING PARKING A motorist should follow these rules when entering an angle parking space to his/her right:

Watch for traffic both ahead and behind Signal and begin to slow down Make sure the rear of the vehicle will clear the parked vehicles Steer sharply into the parking space, and then straighten the wheels centering the vehicle in the parking space Shift to park, or reverse if standard transmission, and apply the parking brake. ANGLED PARKING PARKING

A motorist should follow these rules before backing out of an angle parking space: Walk around to make sure nothing is in the vehicles way Slowly move the vehicle in reverse and be sure that the lane is clear of traffic

Tap the horn to warn nearby pedestrians When able to see past the tops of vehicles parked next to the vehicle, stop and look again Look back and to each side for other motorists Remember that the front of the vehicle will swing opposite to the direction of the turn Back up slowly while turning until the vehicles left front wheel passes the rear bumper of the vehicle parked on the left Straighten the wheels as the vehicle comes back into the lane of traffic. PARKING Parallel parking:

Find a parking space that is large enough to fit the vehicle Signal for a stop and signal to the right to alert motorists that the vehicle will back up to the right. Pull up alongside (parallel) about two to four feet from the vehicle in front Turn and check to see that the way is clear behind the vehicle before back up

Turn his/her body to look out the rear window of the vehicle. Begin backing up slowly for about two feet and turn the steering wheel all the way to the right When the front of the vehicle has cleared the rear bumper of the vehicle in front, stop and check the angle Make sure the right back wheel has not hit the curb Turn the steering wheel all the way to the left while beginning to back up slowly Make sure the vehicle can clear its back bumper When the vehicle is in line, stop. Be sure not to hit the vehicle in back Turn the vehicles wheels straight, and drive to the center of the parking space. The vehicles tires should be no more than six inches from the curb. PARALLEL PARKING

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