Chapter 15: the Geography of Economic Activity and Agriculture

Human Geography by Malinowski & Kaplan CHAPTER 15 LECTURE OUTLINE THE GEOGRAPHY OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY AND AGRICULTURE Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-1 Chapter 15 Modules 15A Small-Scale Economic Systems 15B Large-Scale Economic Systems

15C Economic Categories and Measures of the Economy 15D Origins of Agriculture and the Process of Domestication 15E Different Types of Agriculture 15F Theory of Rural Land Use 15G Agricultural Globalization, Then and Now Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-2 15A: Small-Scale Economic Systems 1

All economic activity takes place within an economic system Earliest economic systems were marked by: Reliance on subsistence food gathering or agriculture Most activities took place within small groups Small-scale production Extensive use of bartering Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-3

15A: Small-Scale Economic Systems 2 In prehistoric times, humans were hunters and gatherers The Neolithic period (New Stone Age) began the transition to primitive agriculture Gradual process beginning about 11,000 years ago Primitive agriculture was subsistence-based Any surpluses would likely be bartered Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-4

15A: Small-Scale Economic Systems 3 Surpluses led to occupational specialization In other words, people provided services in exchange for food In time, feudalism developed Farming was done by serfs on a manor Surplus was ceded to the lord of the manor, who had to pay for defense The medium of exchange was surplus, not money Very little trade because production and consumption

stayed within the manor Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-5 15B: Large-Scale Economic Systems 1 Larger political units led to imperial economies, which dominated until 1300 The size of imperial economies meant they were much more complex and therefore quite diverse Imperial economies included some capitalism

Buying and selling goods to make a profit Merchants and artisans Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-6 Economy of the Roman Empire Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15B.1

15-7 15B: Large-Scale Economic Systems 2 In time, capitalist economic systems take hold: Capitalist commercial economies came first, primarily concerned with the buying and selling of commodities Capitalist industrial economic systems are based on highly specialized industrial products sold for profits The need for raw materials created a different relationship among regions. Places that produced

goods made profits while places that provided raw materials were poorer Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-8 15B: Large-Scale Economic Systems 3 Alternatives to capitalist economic systems include: Planned economies All factories, farms, and services are publically owned and decisions are made by the state

Examples include Maoist China, the USSR, etc. Mixed economies Capitalist with frequent government intervention Such as free public education, health care, restrictions on certain activities, etc. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-9 15C: Economic Categories & Measures of the Economy 1

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) the total of all goods and services produced within a country Gross National Product (GNP) The total of goods and services produced by the citizens of a country whether at home or abroad Gross National Income (GNI) GNP except it does not include taxes, depreciation, and subsidies Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

15-10 GNP PER CAPITA Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15C.1 15-11 15C: Economic Categories & Measures

of the Economy 2 Recession When measures of the economy decline for a sustained period of time, such as six months Depression A more severe downturn for a longer time Public Sector All output produced by the government at all levels Private Sector

All output by individuals or privately-owned businesses Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-12 ECONOMIC SECTORS Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15C.2 15-13

15D: Origins of Agriculture & the Process of Domestication 1 The watershed moment in human development, but why? Theory 1: Domestication started in wellwatered, fertile areas where pieces of plants could easily be buried to make grow new plants Theory 2: A time of environmental stress, perhaps global warming, led humans to search for new food sources because areas had reached their carrying capacity Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

15-14 Agricultural Domestication Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15D.1 15-15 15D: Origins of Agriculture & the Process of Domestication 2

Complex foraging in ecotones resulted in greater knowledge of and intervention in the natural environment Humans chose which plants to grow, and thus human selection often replaced natural selection The downside is that agriculture is a lot more work than hunting or gathering Over time, regions developed their own crop complexes consisting of different plants, which led to todays regional cuisines Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

15-16 Expansion of Agriculture in Europe Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15D.6 15-17 15E: Different Types of Agriculture 1 First, realize that some areas are arable, and

others are not Some areas are too dry, some too cold Some areas are animal-centered, others are plant-centered Some areas are focused on subsistence agriculture and others are focused on commercial agriculture Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-18

15E: Different Types of Agriculture 2 Pastoral nomadism Moving around with animals Mixed agricultural economy Both plants and animals Agribusiness A company owns the land and hires farmers to work it Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

15-19 Agricultural Regions of the World Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15E.4 15-20 15F: Theory of Rural Land Use

Comparative advantage leads to regional differences in agricultural production because of better environment, the skill of local farmers, and proximity to markets Land rent refers to the profitability of land Theory of Rural Land Use: Land rent = (output (price production costs)) (output transport costs distance from market) Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-21

Theory of Rural Land Use Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15F.1 & 15F.2 15-22 Hypothetical Land Use Model for the United States Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 15F.3 15-23 Land Use in the Real World Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15F.4 15-24

15G: Agricultural Globalization 1 The Great Columbian Exchange The exchange of crops between the Americas and Europe after 1492 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-25 15G: Agricultural Globalization 1 Modern farming is different:

Traditional fertilizers have been replaced by synthetic nitrogen Farmers purchase hybrid seeds that can quadruple yields Vast amounts of herbicides and pesticides are needed Large farms require expensive equipment Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 15-26

15G: Agricultural Globalization 2 Green Revolution Introduction of Western agricultural practices to Asia, Latin America, and Africa Genetically-modified strains of rice, wheat, and corn Large irrigation projects But, expensive and resource intensive Food distribution is also more globalized Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

15-27 Globalization of Agriculture Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 15G.2 15-28

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