Chapter 10: Free to be Fully Alive

CHAPTER 10: FREE TO BE FULLY ALIVE Key Terms: Autonomism- a law unto myself Capacity- power or ability to act, know, to hold Crisis- opportunity or occasion for an important decision Right- entitlement or claim (human, legal and civil) Object- physical/mental reality toward which thoughts, feelings and actions can be directed Licence- disregard norms for governing behavior; irresponsible action

Subject- the self that thinks, feels and acts Will- freedom and power of self to choose, act and decide Freedom- hallmark of human nature, core of human existence KEY THINKERS St. Augustine Freedom 1st discovered in our capacity to say no to God Uncovered the terrible grandeur of freedom in the experience of the evil and sin

We have the capacity to turn away from God Through sin we can say no to the one that gave us existence Freedoms reach is infinite Ex: Eve and the serpent Rene DesCartes Freedom is the capacity of the human self Doubting experiment, put everything in

doubt Deep awareness of self as the source of all thinking and doubting A capacity of the self to be free Danger: I can see God as a competitor and assume I is infinite and can do w/o God RIK ERIKSON Personality development occurs as we develop physically, cognitively 8 stages over our entire lives

1. Infant stage- TRUST VS. MISTRUST let go of mother and trust the world 2. Preschool- AUTONOMY VS. SHAME confidence to impact environment, independence 3. 1st years of school-INITIATIVE VS. GUILT assume more responsibility 4. Elementary- INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY sense of competence, discovering ability to learn 5. Adolescence- IDENITY VS. CONFUSION explore different alternatives to questions of concern 6. Early adult years- INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION intimate relationships, act out of love 7. Midlife- GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION contribution to younger generations

8. Last stage- INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR remain generative, adopt stance of shepherd, stewards of Gods creation KOHLBERGS THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT Cognitive psychologist 1. Preconventional moral thinking- children make decisions based on fear of being punished, motive for action 2. Conventional moral thinking- trust, caring and loyalty become centre, social order/justice/duty 3. Postconventional moral thinking- principles of justice, concern for the

common good, laws and obligations are less important, universal nature of ethical principles POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE DISCOVERY OF THE SELF AS FREE Theories of how freedom and morality develop over ones lifetime Descartess recognition of I as a separate from the world made everything else into objects, modern science found its origins Developmental psychology- study the pattern of growth of the human personality and identity Erikson states- development takes place as a results of socialization by

influential members such as parents, each stage has a crisis one must successfully overcome TO DEVELOP AS AN ETHICAL PERSON ONE NEEDS: To trust in the integrity of others Feel capable of acting morally Believe in objective truth and principles Believe that despite ones limitations, one can overcome whatever threatens to diminish ones worth and dignity A sense of ones own identity

Have a compassionate understanding of ones limitations so that one can forgive and be forgiven A sense of ones autonomy so that one can follow their conscience Pursue a life that is meaningful not just for ones self but for others THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS TRADITION Person has inalienable rights, freedoms New proclaimed natural rights ie. Dignity of human person, right of free speech and

the right to life Right- entitlement or claim based on the dignity of being human Legal/civil rights- claims/entitlements that have arisen from need to set up parameters that allow people to live cooperatively without harm some rights are acknowledged in the bible, such as the dignity of the human person In the bible however they are not rights but gifts from God Instead of devising moral code, United Nations developed a declaration, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights Declaration- declares certain rights/freedoms as being fundamental to humans Catholic church recognizes rights/freedom in harmony with faith tradition used in moral teachings

HARMFUL EFFECTS OF FREEDOM FREEDOM AND NATURE: THE LIMITS OF FREEDOM CHAPTER 12: ST. PAUL'S UNDERSTANDING OF FREEDOM Freedom is not a solidarity achievement but a gift During St. Pauls conversion he experienced a new type of freedom Gift of freedom implies 2 things:

1. it was a freedom from something (law, death, sin, slavery) 2. it was a freedom for something (fullness of life in Christ) GODS INITIATIVE IN OUR FREEDOM 1. Freedom from the law- faith in Christ sets you free- not the Torah, not the law that made people free but faith 2. The freedom we have in Christ Jesus- Saul became Paul as he had an experience of Jesus that overturned his life, Jesus is the glory of God, Christ revealed that the origin of life and freedom lay in Gods self emptying love, faith is needed not laws 3. The indwelling spirit- freedom is primarily and exclusively due to the action

of the spirit, we are not free in words only, we are made free in our very being of the holy spirit, task of our spiritual life: to become free with freedom of God 4. What to do then with the laws, precepts, moral norms, rules and principles: faith makes us right before God- not laws, Jesus came not to abolish the law but fulfill it, laws and commandments are powerless without Gods grace, the mosaic law could never make us right 5. Legalism or literalism- each law imposes itself on humans from without, legalism is a counterfeit approach to morality, central to morality is blind to obedience of the law, ethical and moral value do not come from

mere obedience but from something being right and wrong 6. The truth will set you free- grace of God is connected to the experience of conversion and to the new freedom that it brings is also connected to the truth, we cannot experience conversion/ freedom unless we confront the truth about ourselves first GRACE Conversion- radical transformation of the person, a turning around, intellectual level (awareness and openness to the truth), moral level (recognize yourself as free and responsible)

Freedom- love of God and life of Christ dwelling in us through the spirit, lived in the love of God Grace- gift of Gods life/ love at the center of our existence through the indwelling of the holy spirit, Christ is the source of life Legalism- literal interpretation of the law/attitude that something is right b/c it is commanded to be so Pelagianism- ultimate happiness is due to our own efforts and good works, not Gods graciousness Righteousness- our right relationship with other and before God, moral living response to Gods gift Truth- Jesus is the truth, through the holy spirit Jesus dwells in us grace of God

moves us towards the truth and the truth sets us free CHAPTER 13 I the Lord love justice (Isaiah 61.8) DIFFERENT TYPES OF JUSTICE There are 3 types of important relationships that undergird the notion of justice: Commutative justice, Legal justice, Distributive justice COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE Commutative justice pertains to contractual relationships between individuals and

between institutions that have the legal status of a person. Institutions with this status are called corporations. Corporations may include associations, retail stores, schools, sports clubs, law firms and religious communities. The contracts and agreements that make up the basis of relationships at this level are subject to commutative justice. Commutative justice, in a certain sense, is not personal: Example: Clothes shopping. A pair of jeans in a store costs the same whether you are a wealthy person or a poor person. The retailer does not make any distinctions. The pair of jeans forms the basis of your legal or contractual relationship with the retailer. Contracts and agreements of this nature are impersonal and blind.

Commutative justice is important because of the nature of all agreements and contracts Society is built on trust in the word that is given to another. Without it, society quickly falls into anarchy and mistrust. LEGAL JUSTICE Legal justice refers to the relationship of the individual to society. It is also known as contributive justice. In the past, legal justice concerned itself primarily with the individuals obedience to the laws of society. A citizens relationship to society was straightforward, you obeyed the laws, or you paid the penalty for lawlessness. During the last decades, legal justice has come to be understood more in terms

of what the individual in society can contribute beyond the keeping of the law. We are expected not only to obey, but to participate in creating laws that benefit the good of society. Legal justice today means that we contribute to the life of society. Example: We accept not only the right to vote, but also the obligation to vote. DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE Distributive justice pertains to the relationship of the government or society to the individual. What is the obligation of the government toward its citizens? Whatever program of distribution of burdens and benefits the

government adopts, it is subject to distributive justice. Distributive justice deals with all sorts of goods that are not economic. there is a variety of goods, and that justice operates differently in each sphere: The good of citizen ship deals with the conditions of becoming a citizen Is it just to have the an unequal distribution of the rights of citizenship among everyone The good of security and public assistance responds to the needs of those who have the right to public protection and help. The economic good regulates the area of money and merchandise.

this area of goods touches on salaries and wages for work, the economic benefit of the stock market and banking, the availability of consumer goods, and the right to private property. The good of offices and positions here the distribution is not to be based on hereditary or wealth, but on qualifications set by public procedures. no one may be excluded for reasons of age, sex, or religion SOCIAL JUSTICE AND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH The Church has sought to live and act within different forms of

government, voicing its descent whenever important values were threatened. The Catholic Church brings the gospel perspective of justice to bear on all political and economic systems. The Churchs teaching offers several bases for re-thinking social questions in terms of justice. 1. Ownership of Property Property and the ownership of property came to be seen as an extension of owning a body. Today the focus has shifted from private property to the ownership of material goods in general.

The Church: Private property is necessary but not an absolute right. It is always to be seen in relation to all the goods of creation, which in final analysis, are to serve the needs of all. 2. Solidarity Most modern political theories have a common point of departure: the individual and his or her instincts and drives to possess him or herself and material goods. The Church: take the common good as a point of departure. Individuals ought to serve the common good. Justice is what binds us to the common good. And solidarity is the virtue

that binds us to one another in the distribution of wealth. 3. Proportional Equality what is a fair or just distribution of wealth or material goods? There are 4 criteria that have been used to measure the just distribution of economic goods: KEY TERMS Justice: There are 3 distinctions of justice Commutative: pertains to contractual relationships between individuals,

and between institutions that have the legal status of a person. Legal: the relationship of the individual to society, based on law and the enforcement of law. Distributive: the relationship of government to the individual, and the governments obligations. KEY TERMS Common good: The sum total of social conditions which allow people, either as groups or as individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily. (CCC, #1906) Economics: Originally referred to the household and its management.

Generally used to refer to the system of production, distribution and consumption of goods and services in a society. Golden Rule: Do to others as you would have them do to you Private property: Something that is owned for ones exclusive use, or for ones exclusive control. Solidarity: Unity with and among people, based on common interests, values and principles. Righteous: Acting in accord with divine or moral law. CHAPTER 14 Let earth and sea and sky proclaim your glory

GOD CREATED THE HEAVENS AND EARTH The earth must form one of our first considerations in our search for the good. It is connected with our origins; the cosmic dust that exploded into our universe and our earth is the same dust of which we are created. It is generously marked with the glory of God and the Spirit of God shouting over the void, Let there be light Since the stuff of which earth is made is also the stuff of which we are made, ecology asks for a unique kind of ethics. Humanitys increasing power to interfere with or manipulate or extract the basic

building blocks of matter has, for the first time in history, created a situation in which human activity has begun to affect the delicate ecological balance of the planet. In this context, ecology, becomes a moral issue. Our choices affect not only the future of the earth, but also that of humanity. This meansas we have come to understand justicegiving the earth its due. But even more than that, it means extending to the earth our solidarity. THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS Ecology is the study of the earths biosphere: the interacting web of plants and rocks, fungi and soils, animals and oceans, microbes and air, that constitute the habitat of life on our planet.

The interrelationships in the biosphere show signs of extensive stress, largely as a consequence of human activity since the Industrial Revolution in the 18th and 19th centuries. The science of ecology is relatively new but it has provided us with some important insights about the earth 1. All life is interrelated: In order for creatures to survive, they need other creatures, not only as food, but also to adapt to and create a sustainable environment. 2. When one aspect of an ecosystem is changed, repercussions are felt throughout the biosphere: Here human beings have been the greatest culprits of intervening in the ecosystem. 3. Some ecosystems are more resilient than others. Generally speaking, the greater the

diversity of species, the greater the capacity to bounce back after ecological systems are disrupted. OUR BEAUTIFUL, IMPERILLED PLANET We belong to a planet that is both beautiful and under great strain there remains in us a desire to live off the land, to return to the simple lifestyle that preceded modern urbanization. Nature continues to inspire writers and artists. Many have pointed to nature as a reflection of the sacred. However, the relation of the human to the biosphere has by all accounts become problematic Global warming caused by the excess carbon dioxide which increases by a rate of about half a

percent each year This causes changes in transport of energy throughout the atmosphere and in the growth and reproduction of plants It also causes climate change such as increase in rainfall, cloudiness, wind strength and temperature Global warming is making cold places warmer rather than making hot places hotter The abundance of carbon dioxide is good for the growth of plants But our high Artic is a foremost victim of the increase of carbon dioxide In 2003 the Canadian bishops wrote: life on earth today is plagued with an unprecedented and accelerating

ecological crisis. Deforestation, species extinction, climate change, ecosystem collapse, contamination of air and water, and soil erosion are just a few of the enormous ecological problems which we face un Canada and elsewhere in our world. How many of us remember a childhood spent playing under the sun, a beach we were once bale to swim at, a river we were once able to drink from-but no more!....etc Hardly a day goes by without the news causing us to wonder about some aspect of our ecological crisis DOMINION OR DOMINATION? Some have placed the responsibility of the ecological distribution at the

feet of Christianity; that man kinds given dominion over the creatures of the earth was like an invitation to ravage the earth and assert domination. Look at the story in Genesis: 1.26-31 The dominion is not a dominion without the responsibility to God. It means to rule over so that right order might be achieved. God is inviting humanity to steward the animals and other forms of life, that is, to take Gods place in taking care of them. ANTHROPOCENTRISM OF THEOCENTRISM?

Our pattern of perception of how things are in our lives has been termed worldview. Our worldview has a major influence on our future, because it informs the decisions we make today. Anthropocentrism and Theocentrism are two opposing worldviews that influence humanitys relationship with ecology. Anthropocentrism Sees mankind at the center of all reality and relationships evolved out of the possessive

individualism of the 17th century. focuses on the world as a resource base for human use Whatever is one the planet is for the service of humankind. Theocentrism A God-centered worldview The earth belongs to God With all of creation, we bow down to the Creator who has entrusted his creation to

us. We have a crucial role to play in sustaining a world that is both blessed and broken. Both science and religion tell us that we are inextricably entwined in the web of life. DOES NATURE HAVE MORAL STANDING? What is moral standing? We give moral standing, or value when we feel an obligation to an entity to treat it well, or to treat it as something

important. That entity has a hold on us, and makes us regulate our actions. There are 5 different approaches to the moral standing or value of nature: hierarchist, conservationist, preservationist, globalist and sacramental. MORAL AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGICAL STEWARDSHIP As awareness of ecological issues grow, the Church as well reflects on these issues and develops its teachings.

The Canadian Catholic Organization for Development and Peace has taken on a number of ecological issues as part of its mandate to educate and support efforts in the area of social justice. From these documents, we draw 5 principles*** to consider in our relationship with the ecological system ST. FRANCIS AND THE INTEGRITY OF CREATION St. Francis of Assisi is the patron saint of ecology Born in the Umbrian town of Assisi, Italy to a family belonging to the

up and coming merchant class of citizens In his youth he had an active social life After being captured in a military skirmish around the year 1205, Francis began to experience a conversion He abandoned his apprenticeship in his fathers clothing trade to devote himself to solitary prayer While praying he heard a voice telling him to rebuild the church He understood this to be physically rebuilding churches in Assisi area Later he perceived this vocation as one of living out the gospel ideals of poverty and simplicity He experienced the presence of God in creation, calling different

aspects of creation as brother and sister THE OBLIGATION TO REDUCE ECOLOGICAL IMPACT In face of the gravity of the ecological crisis, how does our initial shock and outrage at the various ecological disasters turn into constructive actions? What is the appropriate form of action? How can an individual become a movement? When do we resolve to act? How is this action a reflection of the gospels message of justice and love? Pope John Paul II and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople laid down

some considerations for those undertaking ecological action: KEY TERMS Anthropocentrism: From the Greek anthroposman. A worldview that considers the human being as the most significant entity in the universe. Conservationist: One who sees nature as a resource to be preserved for wise human consumption. Dominion: Word used in Genesis to describe humankinds rule over creation, so that right order may be achieved. Humans are expected to exercise dominion over the earth, a dominion of service, wisdom and love. Ecology: Study of earths biosphere. From the Greek word oikos, or house, and logia, meaning

word, reason or discourse. It is a discourse about our dwelling placeplanet earth. Globalist: One who regards all elements of nature, living and non-living, as worthy of protection. Hierachist: One who views nature as in terms of a hierarchy of living creatures, from the lowest microbe to the highest human being. The lower forms are meant to serve the higher forms. KEY TERMS Preservationist: One who views all living creatures as part of an integrated ecosystem, all having value in and of themselves. Stewardship: How human kind is to exercise dominion over creation: a

caring cooperation with God, a caring for creation with a sense of service, motivated by love. Theocentrism: From the Greek theosGod. A worldview that considers God to be the most significant entity in the universe. (opposite of anthropocentrism) Worldview: A worldview is a set of presuppositions (assumptions that may be true, partially true, or entirely false) which we hold (consciously or unconsciously, consistently or inconsistently) about the basic make-up of our world.

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