# Chapter 1 Getting Organized Chapter 10 The Graph ADT Chapter 10: The Graph ADT 10.1 Introduction to Graphs 10.2 The Graph Interface 10.3 Implementations of Graphs 10.4 Application: Graph Traversals 10.5 Application: The Single-Source Shortest-Paths Problem

10.1 Introduction to Graphs Definitions Graph: A data structure that consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges that relate the vertices to each other Vertex: A node in a graph Edge (arc): A pair of vertices representing a connection between the two vertices in a graph Undirected graph: A graph in which the edges

have no direction Directed graph (digraph): A graph in which each edge is directed from one vertex to another (or the same) vertex Formally a graph G is defined as follows: G = (V,E) where V(G) is a finite, nonempty set of vertices E(G) is a set of edges (written as pairs

of vertices) More Definitions Adjacent vertices: Two vertices in a graph that are connected by an edge Path: A sequence of vertices that connects two vertices in a graph Complete graph: A graph in which every vertex is directly connected to every other vertex Weighted graph: A graph in which each edge carries a value

Two complete graphs A weighted graph 10.2 The Graph Interface What kind of questions might we ask about a graph? Does a path exist between vertex A and

vertex D? Can we fly from Atlanta to Detroit? What is the total weight along this path from A to D? How much does it cost to fly from Atlanta to Detroit? What is the total distance? What is the shortest path from A to D? What is the cheapest way to get from Atlanta to Detroit? If I start at vertex A, where can I go? What cities are accessible if I start in Atlanta?

How many connected components are in the graph? What groups of cities are connected to each other? Graph Operations What kind of operations are defined on a graph? We specify and implement a small set of useful graph operations Many other operations on graphs can be defined; we have chosen operations that are

useful when building applications to answer typical questions, such as those found on the previous slide WeightedGraphInterface.java part I //---------------------------------------------------------------------------// WeightedGraphInterface.java by Dale/Joyce/Weems Chapter 10 // // Interface for classes that implement a directed graph with weighted edges. // Vertices are objects of class T and can be marked as having been visited.

// Edge weights are integers. // Equivalence of vertices is determined by the vertices' equals method. // // General precondition: except for the addVertex and hasVertex methods, // any vertex passed as an argument to a method is in this graph. //---------------------------------------------------------------------------package ch10.graphs; import ch04.queues.*; public interface WeightedGraphInterface { boolean isEmpty(); // Returns true if this graph is empty; otherwise, returns false.

boolean isFull(); // Returns true if this graph is full; otherwise, returns false. WeightedGraphInterface.java part II void addVertex(T vertex); // Preconditions: This graph is not full. // vertex is not already in this graph. //

vertex is not null. // // Adds vertex to this graph. boolean hasVertex(T vertex); // Returns true if this graph contains vertex; otherwise, returns false. void addEdge(T fromVertex, T toVertex, int weight); // Adds an edge with the specified weight from fromVertex to toVertex. int weightIs(T fromVertex, T toVertex); // If edge from fromVertex to toVertex exists, returns the weight of edge; // otherwise, returns a special null-edge value.

WeightedGraphInterface.java part III UnboundedQueueInterface getToVertices(T vertex); // Returns a queue of the vertices that vertex is adjacent to. void clearMarks(); // Unmarks all vertices. void markVertex(T vertex); // Marks vertex. boolean isMarked(T vertex); // Returns true if vertex is marked; otherwise, returns false. T getUnmarked();

// Returns an unmarked vertex if any exist; otherwise, returns null. } 10.3 Implementations of Graphs In this section we introduce two graph implementation approaches an array based approach a linked approach Array-Based Implementation Adjacency matrix For a graph with N nodes,

an N by N table that shows the existence (and weights) of all edges in the graph With this approach a graph consists of an integer variable numVertices a one-dimensional array vertices a two-dimensional array edges (the adjacency matrix) A repeat of the abstract model The array-based implementation

WeightedGraph.java instance variables package ch10.graphs; import ch04.queues.*; public class WeightedGraph implements WeightedGraphInterface { public static final int NULL_EDGE = 0; private static final int DEFCAP = 50; // default capacity private int numVertices; private int maxVertices; private T[] vertices;

private int[][] edges; private boolean[] marks; // marks[i] is mark for vertices[i] . . . WeightedGraph.java Constructors public WeightedGraph() // Instantiates a graph with capacity DEFCAP vertices. { numVertices = 0; maxVertices = DEFCAP;

vertices = (T[ ]) new Object[DEFCAP]; marks = new boolean[DEFCAP]; edges = new int[DEFCAP][DEFCAP]; } public WeightedGraph(int maxV) // Instantiates a graph with capacity maxV. { numVertices = 0; maxVertices = maxV; vertices = (T[ ]) new Object[maxV]; marks = new boolean[maxV];

edges = new int[maxV][maxV]; } ... Adding a vertex public void addVertex(T vertex) // Preconditions: This graph is not full. // Vertex is not already in this graph. //

Vertex is not null. // // Adds vertex to this graph. { vertices[numVertices] = vertex; for (int index = 0; index < numVertices; index++) { edges[numVertices][index] = NULL_EDGE; edges[index][numVertices] = NULL_EDGE; } numVertices++; } Textbook also includes code for indexIs, addEdge, weightIs, and getToVertices. Coding the remaining methods is left as an exercise. Linked Implementation Adjacency list A linked list that identifies all the vertices to which a particular vertex is connected; each vertex has its own adjacency list

We look at two alternate approaches: use an array of vertices that each contain a reference to a linked list of nodes use a linked list of vertices that each contain a reference to a linked list of nodes A repeat of the abstract model The first link-based implementation The second link-based implementation

10.4 Application: Graph Traversals Our graph specification does not include traversal operations. We treat traversal as a graph application rather than an innate operation. The basic operations given in our specification allow us to implement different traversals independent of how the graph itself is actually implemented. The application UseGraph in the ch10.apps

package contains the code for all the algorithms presented in Sections 10.4 and 10.5 Graph Traversal As we did for general trees, we look at two types of graph traversal: The strategy of going as far as we can and then backtracking is called a depth-first strategy. The strategy of fanning out level by level is called a breadth-first strategy.

We discuss algorithms for employing both strategies within the context of determining if two cities are connected in our airline example. Can we get from Austin to Washington? Algorithm: IsPathDF (startVertex, endVertex): returns boolean Set found to false Clear all marks Mark the startVertex

Push the startVertex onto the stack do Set current vertex = stack.top() stack.pop() if current vertex equals endVertex Set found to true else for each adjacent vertex if adjacent vertex is not marked Mark the adjacent vertex and Push it onto the stack

while !stack.isEmpty() AND !found return found Set found to false Clear all marks Mark the startVertex Push the startVertex onto the stack do Set current vertex = stack.top() stack.pop() if current vertex equals endVertex

Set found to true else for each adjacent vertex if adjacent vertex is not marked Mark the adjacent vertex and Push it onto the stack while !stack.isEmpty() AND !found return found Breadth first search use queue IsPathBF (startVertex, endVertex): returns boolean Set found to false

Clear all marks Mark the startVertex Enqueue the startVertex into the queue do Set current vertex = queue.dequeue() if current vertex equals endVertex Set found to true else for each adjacent vertex if adjacent vertex is not marked Mark the adjacent vertex and

Enqueue it into the queue while !queue.isEmpty() AND !found return found Examples of search paths 10.5 Application: The Single-Source Shortest-Paths Problem An algorithm that displays the shortest path from a designated starting city to every other city in the graph

In our example graph if the starting point is Washington we should get Last Vertex Destination Distance -----------------------------------Washington Washington 0 Washington Atlanta 600

Washington Dallas 1300 Atlanta Houston 1400 Dallas Austin 1500 Dallas Denver

2080 Dallas Chicago 2200 An erroneous approach shortestPaths(graph, startVertex) graph.ClearMarks( ) Create flight(startVertex, startVertex, 0) pq.enqueue(flight) // pq is a priority queue do

flight = pq.dequeue( ) if flight.getToVertex() is not marked Mark flight.getToVertex() Write flight.getFromVertex, flight.getToVertex, flight.getDistance flight.setFromVertex(flight.getToVertex()) Set minDistance to flight.getDistance() Get queue vertexQueue of vertices adjacent from flight.getFromVertex() while more vertices in vertexQueue Get next vertex from vertexQueue if vertex not marked flight.setToVertex(vertex)

flight.setDistance(minDistance + graph.weightIs(flight.getFromVertex(), vertex)) pq.enqueue(flight) while !pq.isEmpty( ) Notes The algorithm for the shortest-path traversal is similar to those we used for the depth-first and breadth-first searches, but there are three major differences: We use a priority queue rather than a FIFO queue or stack

We stop only when there are no more cities to process; there is no destination It is incorrect if we use a reference-based priority queue improperly! The Incorrect Part of the Algorithm while more vertices in vertexQueue Get next vertex from vertexQueue if vertex not marked flight.setToVertex(vertex) flight.setDistance(minDistance + graph.weightIs(flight.getFromVertex(), vertex))

pq.enqueue(flight) This part of the algorithm walks through the queue of vertices adjacent to the current vertex, and enqueues Flight objects onto the priority queue pq based on the information. The flight variable is actually a reference to a Flight object. Suppose the queue of adjacent vertices has information in it related to the cities Atlanta and Houston. The first time through this loop we insert information related to Atlanta in flight and enqueue it in pq. But the next time through the loop we make changes to the Flight

object referenced by flight. We are inadvertently reaching into the priority queue and changing one of its entries. Correcting the Algorithm while more vertices in vertexQueue Get next vertex from vertexQueue if vertex not marked Set newDistance to minDistance + graph.weightIs(flight.getFromVertex(), vertex) Create newFlight(flight.getFromVertex(), vertex, newDistance) pq.enqueue(newFlight)

The application UseGraph in the ch10.apps package contains the code for all the algorithms presented in Sections 10.4 and 10.5 Unreachable Vertices With this new graph we cannot fly from Washington to Austin, Chicago, Dallas, or Denver To print unreachable vertices Append the following to the

shortestPaths method: System.out.println("The unreachable vertices are:"); vertex = graph.getUnmarked(); while (vertex != null) { System.out.println(vertex); graph.markVertex(vertex); vertex = graph.getUnmarked(); }