Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 1 - thekuhlestclassroom.weebly.com

Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 1 Objectives 1. SWBAT explain how many electrons fit in each orbital 2. SWBAT construct Bohr Model diagrams with the correct number of electrons in each orbital 3. SWBAT to convert Bohr Model diagrams into Electron-Dot diagrams Quick Review Electron Configuration how electrons are arranged in energy levels and orbitals around a nucleus Energy Level the location (house) that contains orbitals (rooms)

where electrons live. Also called SHELLS The BIGGER the energy level, the BIGGER the house Think of it like this. Low Energy 1st Energy Level Orbital 2nd Energ y Level Orbitals

High Energy 3rd Energ y Level Orbitals Away from Nucleus Electron Configuration for Energy Levels Energy Level (Shell) # of Electrons 1

2 2 8 3 18 4 32 5 50

6 72 How to construct electron configurations Rules Start on the inside and work your way out COMPLETELY fill each shell as you work your way out Whatever is left over in the outer-most shell, is your number of VALENCE electrons Electron-Dot Diagrams Write the chemical symbol for each element, then place the number of valence electrons around the symbol on 4 sides. Keep placing one dot on each side, until you have the number of valence electrons NOTE: you should not have more than 2 per side, for a total of 8.

Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 2 Objectives 1. SWBAT explain how elements and atoms become ions when forming bonds 2. SWBAT to identify trends in the periodic table (atomic radius, ionization energy, electronegativity) 3. SWBAT explain why some bonds might form over others Ions Ion an atom that has a NET positive or NET negative charge Anion an atom that has a NET negative charge Nonmetals will always become ANIONS

Proton s + 9 Electro ns -9 Charge 0 F Protons

+9 Electrons 10 Charge F -1 **GAINS one electron to fill the octet. Now has 10 e- total. Cation an atom that has a NET positive charge Metals will always become CATIONS

Protons +2 0 Electro ns -20 Ca Protons +2 0 Electro ns -18 Ca

**LOSES two electron to empty the octet. Now has 18 etotal. Practice Whats the charge? Anion or Cation? Atomic Radius Atomic Radius the distance from the center of an atom (nucleus) to the outermost electron orbital Atomic Radius DECREASES Atomic Radius INCREASES Practice Whats Bigger?

Ionization Energy Ionization Energy how easy it is to pull an electron out of an atom The LARGER the atomic radius, the lower the ionization energy. Its easier to pull an electron out of a large atom than a small atom. Ionization Energy INCREASES Ionization Energy DENCREASES Trick: Move right to left first, then check up and down Electronegativity Electronegativity how much an atom will attract additional electrons

Pauling Scale Rates electronegativity on a scale from 0.7 to 4.0. The bigger the difference in electronegativity, the stronger the bond Electronegativity DENCREASES How hungry an atom is for more electrons. The opposite of Electronegativity INCREASES ionization energy The smaller the atomic radius, the higher the electronegativity.

Practice What would Lithium rather bond with, Bromine or Iodine? Why? What would Chlorine rather bond with, Potassium or Sodium? Why? What would Strontium rather bond with Bromine, Sulfur, or Selenium? Why? Would Fluorine rather bond with, Calcium, Rubidium, or Strontium? Why? Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 3 Objectives 1. Students will correct and complete their dating profiles for all of the atoms that they

met. 2. SWBAT to correctly name and draw DotBonds for the compounds created 3. SWBAT explain their best and worst matches using ionization energy and electronegativity Ion Review Ion an atom that has a NET positive or NET negative charge Anion an atom that has a NET negative charge Nonmetals will always become ANIONS Proton s + 9 Electro

ns -9 Charge 0 F Protons +9 Electrons 10 Charge F

-1 **GAINS one electron to fill the octet. Now has 10 e- total. Cation an atom that has a NET positive charge Metals will always become CATIONS Protons +2 0 Electro ns -20

Ca Protons +2 0 Electro ns -18 Ca **LOSES two electron to empty the octet. Now has 18 etotal. Ionic Bond Review

Ionic Bond The force of attraction that holds cations (+) and anions (-) together Na F Dot Bonding Review Na Cl Li O Li Writing Formulas Rules 1. Cation (+) ALWAYS comes first Usually a METAL 2. Anion (-) ALWAYS comes second Usually a NonMetal

3. If there is more than 1 of an atom in the formula, write it as a subscript Li O Li Li2O AlCl3 Ionic Formula Shortcut You MUST KNOW how to construct dot models. The shortcut is just a quick check You DO NOT need to write a 1 in the formula. If the numbers are the same, they reduce to 1s, and dont write them. Mg

O Mg2O2 +2 MgO -2 B +3 S B2S3 B 2 S3

-2 Mg I Mg1I2 MgI2 +2 -1 Naming Ionic Bond Rules 1. The name of the CATION always comes FIRST Use the FULL NAME of the cation 2.The name of the ANION always comes LAST Use the ROOT NAME of the anion, then add IDE Anion Name Examples Fluorine -> Fluoride

Iodine -> Iodide Sulfur -> Sulfide Nitrogen -> Nitride Phosphorous -> Phosphide Ionic Naming Practice Li3P NaCl BaS Fr2O Lithium Phosphide Sodium Chloride Barium Sulfide Francium Oxide Atomic Dating

Activity Review Dating Data Symbol Electroneg . Radius (pm) Symbol Electroneg . Radius (pm)

H 2.20 53 B 2.04 87 Li 0.98 167

C 2.55 67 Be 1.57 112 N 3.04 56

Na 0.93 190 O 3.44 48 Mg 1.31 145

F 3.98 42 K 0.82 243 Si 1.00 111

Ca 1.00 194 P 2.19 98 Rb 0.82 265

S 2.58 88 Sr 0.95 219 Cl 3.18 79

Cs 0.79 298 As 2.18 114 Ba 0.80 253

Se 2.55 103 Fr 0.7 270 Br 2.06 94

Ra 0.80 278 I 2.68 115 Te 2.10 123

At 2.20 127 Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 4 Objectives 1. SWBAT explain the difference between 2. SWBAT to correctly name and draw DotBonds for the compounds created 3. SWBAT explain their best and worst matches using ionization energy and electronegativity Covalent Bonds

Covalent Bond a chemical bond where two or more atoms SHARE a pair of valence electrons Molecule a neutral group (no charge) of atoms that are joined together by ionic or covalent bonds Lewis Structure a model of boding between elements, usually represented by dots. A Dot-Bond Prefix a Latin root that comes BEFORE the name of an atom that tells how many atoms are there Special Covalent Bonds Diatomic Molecules seven NONMETALS that ALWAYS stick to themselves Covalent naming rules DO NOT apply. Just name from periodic table. N2 - Nitrogen

Never H2 - Hydrogen Have F2 - Fluorine Fear O2 - Oxygen Of I2 - Iodine Ice

Cl2 - Chlorine Cold Br2 - Bromine Beer Covalent Bonds Group 16 Elements Group 17 Elements Usually form 1 Bond, can form up to 7 Bonds F Cl ONE electron pair So

ONE BOND Usually form 2 Bonds, can form up to 6 Bonds Cl S Cl TWO electron pairs So TWO BONDS Covalent Bonds Group 15 Elements Group 14 Elements Usually form 3 Bonds, can form up to 5 Bonds

Usually form 4 Bonds Cl Cl N Cl THREE electron pairs So THREE BONDS F F C F F FOUR electron pairs So FOUR BONDS

Writing Covalent Compounds Made of two anions (2 nonmetals or 1 nonmetal & 1 polyatomic ion) Identify the less electronegative element 1st (trend = less EN is the one farthest left & farthest down on Periodic Table) The 1st nonmetal is just given the name as found on the Periodic Table (just like ionic) The 2nd nonmetal ending is changed to ide (just like ionicdont change polyatomics) Difference = numerical prefixes are used to express how many of each nonmetal are present Writing Covalent Compounds (cont.) You never use criss-cross method The only time you do not use a prefix is when there is only one of the first nonmetal.

Number Prefix 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4

Tetra 5 Penta 6 Hexa 7 Hepta 8 Octa

9 Nona 10 Deca Covalent Compound Practice SO2 N2 O NO2 CCl4 Cl2O7 PCl3 SF6 Sulfur Dioxide

Dinitrogen Monoxide Nitrogen Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Dichlorine Heptaoxide Phosphorus Trichloride Sulfur Hexaflouride Si3N4 Trisilicon Tetranitride N(BrO3)5 Nitrogen Pentabromate H 2O

Water - can use common name Covalent Compound Practice Phosphorus Trioxide PO3 Dinitrogen Pentacarbide N 2C 5 Tellurium Noniodide TeI9 Carbon Monoxide

CO Selenium Heptaflouride Tetraphosphorous Decoxide Arsenic Hexabromide Silicon Dichloride SeF7 P4O10 AsBr6 SiCl2 Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 5 Objectives 1. SWBAT explain the how transition metals have different properties than Alkali and

Alkali Earth Metals 2. SWBAT to explain ionic bonding 3. SWBAT identify charge of transition metals from Roman Numerals Transition Metals (Groups 3-12) Become Cations (+ charge) Transition metals are very large Have lots of extra, empty orbitals. Metallic Bond a bond between transition metals. Electrons are given off into a sea of electrons that surrounds the metal cations. electron metal cation Charge of Transition Metal Cations Can have variable charges

The charge is given by Roman Numerals Examples Lead (II) = Pb+2 Lead (IV) = Pb+4 Copper (I) = Cu+1 Copper (III) = Cu+3 On your whiteboards lets do the following. Write the formula for: 1. Copper (III) Nitride 2. Silver (IV) Chloride 3. Cobalt (II) Acetate 4. Lead (IV) Bicarbonate In your notes, do the following practice

problems ON A NEW SHEET OF PAPER IN YOUR NOTES, TITLE IT 3-9-16 PRACTICE PROBLEMS Write the FORMULA for the following. Ch. 6 & 7 Notes Day 6 Objectives 1. SWBAT explain proper safety procedures in the lab 2. SWBAT identify the different parts of a Bunsen Burner and their function 3. SWBAT explain the difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions. Chemical Bonding (In real life!) Breaking chemical bonds- going from a neutral compound (ionic or

covalent) and splitting it into the ions it is made from Making chemical bonds- taking ions that are separate and providing an environment where then can meet and come together. Endothermic Reaction- a chemical reaction that ABSORBS (takes in) energy as it happens. Typical behaviors: Exothermic Reaction- a chemical reaction that RELEASES (puts out) energy as it happens. Typical behaviors: Hottest Part of Flame Allow for oxygen to mix with gas to create the

flame Directs the flame for more controlled used in the lab. CAUTION: GETS VERY HOT!! CLOSE OPEN ON Coldest Part of Flame OFF Controls the size of

Twist Left for Twist Right for the air holes, for more or less oxygen MORE AIR & LESS AIR & Bigger Flame Smaller Flame Regulates the flow of gas into the Bunsen Burner VE L VA Methane Gas Supply OPEN Controls the needle valve for more or less gas. CAUTION: SHOULD NOT NEED

ADJUSTMENT CLOSE Twist Left for MORE GAS & Bigger Flame Twist Right for LESS GAS & Smaller Flame

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