Chapter 4 Elements, Compounds, & Mixtures Section 1: Elements Objectives Describe pure substances Describe the characteristics of elements, and give examples Explain how elements can be identified Classify elements according to their properties 3.1 Elements Element- A pure substance that cannot be separated
into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. Pure Substance- A substance in which there is only one type of particles Properties of Elements Each element has its own characteristic properties. These include boiling/melting point, density, reactivity, flammability, etc. An element may share one or two properties with another element, but it will not share all its properties with another element. There will be specific properties for each element. Classifying Elements You can use properties to identify elements.
Think about how many types of dogs there are. How do you tell one breed from another? Categories of Elements Metals Nonmetals Metalloids Classifying Elements Metal- an element that is shiny and conducts heat and electricity well Properties Malleable ability to be hammered into sheets Ductile ability to be drawn into
wires Classifying Elements Nonmetal an element that conducts heat and electric poorly Properties 1. dull 2. brittle not malleable Metalloid- an element that has properties of metals and nonmetals Properties 1.some are shiny 2. some are dull 3. somewhat malleable and ductile
4. some are good conductors of heat and electricity 5. some are poor conductors of heat and electricity Classifying Elements Classifying Elements Appearance Conductivity Physically Example Metal
Shiny Good malleable., ductile Lead, Copper Nonmetal Dull
Poor Brittle Sulfur, oxygen Metalloid Some Shiny/ Some good/ some dull some poor Somewhat malleable
and ductile Silicon, boron Section 1: Elements Section Review Please answer the objectives on your summary sheet 1. Describe pure substances 2. Describe the characteristics of elements, and give examples 3. Explain how elements can be identified 4. Classify elements according to their properties
Section 2: Compounds Objectives Explain how elements make up compounds Describe the properties of compounds Explain how a compound can be broken down into its elements Give examples of common compounds 3.2 Compounds Compound- a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds Examples: H2O (water), NaCl (table salt)
A particle of a compound is called a molecule Elements do not randomly combine. They join into a specific ratios according to their masses. Section 2: Compounds Properties Compounds versus Elements A compound will have different properties ______________ than the elements that make it up Compounds Sodium
Soft Silvery, white metal Reacts violently with Chlorine Gas Poisonous
Greenish-yellow But when chemically combined You get.. NaCl = Table salt! Breaking Down Compounds Some compounds can be broken down into their elements or simpler compounds by chemical means. Sometimes energy in the form of heat is needed to do this. Section 2: Compounds Section Review Please answer the objectives on your summary sheet
1. Explain how elements make up compounds 2. Describe the properties of compounds 3. Explain how a compound can be broken down into its elements 4. Give examples of common compounds Section 3: Mixtures Objectives Describe three properties of mixtures Describe methods of separating the parts of a mixture
Analyze a solution in terms of its solute and solvent Describe factors that affect solubility for solids, liquids, and gases Explain how concentration affects a solution Describe the particles in a solution, suspension, and colloid Explain the difference between colloids, solutions, and suspensions 3.3 Mixtures Mixture- A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. An example would be a salad (or salsa as in the picture). The cheese, sauce, and dough are still the same items after you make
the pizza. Properties of Mixtures Sometimes you cannot see all the components like in salt water This is called a homogeneous mixture. It includes salt and water. Since mixtures are not chemically combined, you can separate the different substances by physical methods. Components in a mixture do not need to be in a specific ratio. Sometimes you can just pick ingredients out of a mixture (pizza) This is called a heterogeneous mixture Separating Mixtures Other ways to separate mixtures include: evaporation separates a mixture based on boiling
points Ex: salt in water Filtration - a process to separate materials based on their size. Ex: coffee filters and a screen to find artifacts at a historical site. distillation separates a mixture based on density. Ex: crude oil gasoline & propane centrifuge separates based on particle size Ex: blood Compounds vs. mixtures Mixtures Compounds
Made of elements, compounds or Made of elements both No change in original properties of Change in original properties of components components Separated by physical means
Separated by chemical means Formed by using any ratio of Formed using a set ratio of components components Mixture vs. compound vs. element Solutions, Suspensions, & Colloids Solutions
Solution- A mixture that appears to be a single substance. Particles are small & cannot be filtered Solutions have the same composition throughout. Example: Salt Water Solute- Substance that is dissolved. (Salt) Solvent- The substance in which the solute is dissolved. (water) Hide the LOOT in the VENT! Solutions Continued The term soluble means able to dissolve. Insoluble means unable to dissolve. Solutions can be solids, liquids, or gases.
Solubility- Measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a solvent. This is expressed as g/mL To increase solubility: heat stir crush smaller particles Section 3: Mixtures How does temperature affect solubility? For liquid solvents
less soluble A higher temperature makes a gas _______ more soluble A higher temperature makes a solid _______ USUALLY A higher temperature makes a liquid more soluble Section 3: Mixtures To get solids to dissolve faster ___________________________ Mix, stir, or shake - Causes particles to separate and
spread out faster _____________ - Heat Causes particles to move more quickly and separate ________________ - Crush Spreads out solute to mix with solvent more quickly Colloids
Colloid A type of mixture in which the particles are dispersed throughout but are not heavy enough to settle out Particle size is larger than that of a solution but small enough they will still pass through a filter. Examples of colloids: milk, fog Colloids Colloids scatter light. (fog) You can actually see the beam of light in the colloid. Suspensions Suspensions- A mixture in which the particles of a material are dispersed throughout a liquid or gas but are large enough that
they settle out. Particles are large enough to settle out. Suspensions can be separated by passing through a filter. Examples: Italian salad dressing, muddy water Elements, Compounds, Mixtures Elements Compounds Mixtures How many parts make it up?
1 2 or more 2 or more elements or compounds Pure: more than one substance? pure pure Not pure
Chemically or physically combined? N/A Chemically physically Chemical change to make them? N/A
Yes no Fixed ratio? N/A Yes no How separated: chemically/ physically?
N/A Chemically physically Solution, suspension, colliod Elements Compounds Mixtures How many parts make it
up? 1 2 or more 2 or more elements or compounds Pure: more than one substance? pure pure
Not pure Chemically or physically combined? N/A Chemically physically Chemical change to make them?
N/A Yes no Fixed ratio? N/A Yes no How separated:
chemically/ physically? N/A Chemically physically Section 3: Mixtures Section Review Please answer the objectives on your summary sheet 1. 2. 3.
4. Describe three properties of mixtures Describe methods of separating the parts of a mixture Analyze a solution in terms of its solute and solvent Describe factors that affect solubility for solids, liquids, and gases 5. Explain how concentration affects a solution 6. Describe the particles in a solution, suspension, and colloid 7. Explain the difference between colloids, solutions, and suspensions
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