Cellular Structure and Function - AAA Biology

Cellular Structure and Function Chapter 7 Cell 1665 Robert Hooke

Microscope a little room Cell The basic structural and functional unit of

all living organisms Cell 1838 Matthias Schleiden All plants are composed of cells

Cell 1839 Theodor Schwann Animal tissue made up of cells

Cell 1855 Rudolph Virchow Cells come from cells Through division

Cell The cell theory Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are composed of

one or more cells. Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms. Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are composed of

one or more cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms. 3. Cells arise only from previously existing cells, with cells passing copies of their genetic material on to their daughter cells.

microscopes Compound light microscopes Electron microscopes Compound

Glass lenses Visible light 10 X 10 = 100 1000X electron

Magnets to aim a beam of electrons at thin slices 500,000X Specimen must be dead, sliced thin and stained

Cell types Basic Cell Types Prokaryotic

Eukaryotic Basic Cell Types Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

No nucleus No membrane Nucleus

bound organelles Membrane bound Organelles

Plasma membrane Special boundary One physical trait shared by all Opener Complete the following sentence

The plasma membrane is composed of a ______________ Quiz Define the following

Osmosis Hypertonic Hypotonic 7.2

The Plasma Membrane Selective permeability Plasma Membrane

Plasma Membrane Phospholipid bilayer Phospholipid bilayer

Phosphate head polar to water Two fatty acid tails are repelled by water

Fluid mosaic model sea Other components Carbohydrates

Cholesterol Proteins Plasma Membrane proteins

Receptors outside Anchors inside Transport between Opener The plasma membrane of a cell consists of

A. Protein molecules arranged in two layers with polar areas forming the outside of the membrane B. Two layers of lipids organized with the nonpolar tails forming the interior of the membrane

C. Lipid molecules positioned between two carbohydrate layers D. Protein molecules with polar and nonpolar tails Quiz

List three cell organelles and their functions 7.3 Structures and Organelles Cytoplasm and

Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm semifluid material

Cytoskeleton Network of fibers break down sugar Protein

(prokaryotic) provide anchor Structures and Organelles Nucleus

Ribosomes Nucleolus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus

Lysosomes Centrioles Mitochondria Nucleus Directs cell

functioning Stores DNA Ribosomes RNA and protein

Produce proteins Nucleolus Site of ribosome production

Endoplasmic reticulum Folded sacs Interconnected channels

Protein and lipid production Golgi apparatus Flattened stack of

membranes Packages proteins Vesicles Lysosomes Use Enzymes to

Digest Excess organelles Worn-out organelles Food particles

Bacteria Viruses Centrioles Microtubles Play a part of cell

division Mitochondria Energy generators Convert fuel

particles into usable energy powerhouses Structures and Organelles

Vacuole Chloroplasts Thylakoid Cell Wall Structures

Cilia Flagella 7.4 Cellular Transport

Cellular Transport Diffusion Cellular Transport Diffusion

Diffusion Dynamic equilibrium

Facilitated Transport Diffusion of water Channel protein Carrier protein Osmosis: Diffusion of Water

Water passes freely into and out of the cell through the plasma membrane

In a solution, a substance (solute) is dissolved in a solvent Cells in solution

Isotonic solution Hypotonic solution Hypertonic solution Active Transport Sometimes

movement from lower concentration to higher Need energy

Keeps homeostasis Transport of large particles Endocytosis Exocytosis

Basic Cell Types Prokaryotic Bacteria Cells No Membrane bound Organelle

Eukaryotic Animal and Plant cells Membrane bond organelle

Animals, plants, bacterial What about viruses One or more cells

Displays organization Grows and develops Reproduces Stimuli Energy Homeostasis

Adapts over time Cell Structure and Organelles Plasma Membrane Boundary that

control the movement of substances into and out of the cell

Cell Wall Inflexible barrier Protection and support Plant cell

Centrioles Important for cell division

Chloroplast Site where photosynthesis takes place Double membrane

organelle Thylakoids Cilia Aid in locomotion Aid in feeding

Move things along the surface Cytoskeleton Framework for the

cell Endoplasmic reticulum Highly folded

membrane that is the site of protein synthesis Endoplasmic reticulum Highly folded

membrane that is the site of protein synthesis Flagella

Aid in locomotion Golgi apparatus Membranes Modifies proteins Packages them for

distribution outside the cell Lysosome A vesicle

Digestive enzymes Breakdown worn- out material Mitochondrion

Powerhouse Makes energy available to the rest of the cell

Mitochondrion Powerhouse Makes energy available to the rest of the cell

Nucleus Control center Holds coded directions

production of proteins cell division Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis Vacuole Temporary storage

of materials Protein Synthesis Cell

Central Dogma

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Rotary Foundation New Grants Process

    Rotary Foundation New Grants Process

    Hello District 5220 Rotarians: In July 2013, The Rotary Foundation initiated a new grants process after a three-year pilot program. As part of the new program, districts were mandated to provide training to Rotarians on the various types and requirements...
  • GW study of half-metallic electronic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    GW study of half-metallic electronic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    Matter 11,R489(1999) Ionization energy e.g. GW improves bandgaps LMTO-ASA virtual crystal approx. Mn eg Mn t2g Mn eg Mn t2g La Mn O Pm-3m Majority Mn eg <- Fermi level Minority Mn t2g <- Fermi level Spin moment=3.55mB La 4f...
  • Entrada/salida en HASKELL - UMA

    Entrada/salida en HASKELL - UMA

    Title: Entrada/salida en HASKELL Author: Joaquin A. Bujalance Last modified by: Joaquin A. Bujalance Created Date: 3/9/2005 7:46:13 PM Document presentation format
  • Solving two-player zero-sum extensive-form games

    Solving two-player zero-sum extensive-form games

    Plan for next part of the presentation. We will introduce counterfactual regret minimization (CFR)-based equilibrium finding in two-player zero-sum games. Most common algorithm. Relatively easy to understand and implement. We start from first principles and proceed step by step to...
  • Fueled to Fight Stoplight System - United States Marine Corps

    Fueled to Fight Stoplight System - United States Marine Corps

    Identified by food labels and posters throughout dining establishments. Stoplight System. Fueled to Fight categorizes foods using the stoplight colors of RED, YELLOW and GREEN. Foods are color coded as either Red, Yellow, or Green based upon the food's total...
  • Welcome to the Master program in Network and

    Welcome to the Master program in Network and

    The semester card issued by HiOA only works as an access card to the facilities at the university college. To get discounts on e.g. public transport, you have to use the semester card issued by the UiO. Student number: All...
  • President/Vice President Training: Leading your PTA PTA Mission:

    President/Vice President Training: Leading your PTA PTA Mission:

    Role of the President. Manage conflict and create unity. Conflict is a way of opening the door to new ideas and points of view. It is an opportunity to explore new solutions to problems
  • Insert title slide - ITESM

    Insert title slide - ITESM

    Can't Questions which tend to identify applicants 40-64 years of age What Can and Can't Be Asked: Religion, Work Days or Shifts, Race or Color, Photograph Religion Can (None) Can't Applicant's religious denomination of affiliation, church, parish, pastor, or religious...