Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function Chapter 6 Mr. Scott Studying Cells A number of different techniques have been/are

used to study cells Light microscopy Electron microscopy Cell fractionation Cell Fractionation Used for organelles Take the cell apart

and separate Based upon the mass of the different organelles Used with other techniques to evaluate structures Cell Theory The cell theory

All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things New cells are produced from existing cells

Cells The basic unit of life Cell Types Prokaryotes and

Eukaryotes Characteristics 1 to 100 micrometers Cell (plasma) membrane Cytosol/cytoplasm DNA/chromosomes Ribosomes

Prokaryotic Prokaryotes Cells that do not contain nuclei Usually smaller than eukaryotic cells Less complicated

All bacteria cells are prokaryotic Cell Types Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotes

Cells that do contain a nucleus Usually larger than prokaryotic cells More complex Multicellular or unicellular Plants, animals, fungi, and protists

Cell Organelles Cell Factory Organelles Little organs

Cytoplasm The fluid between the cell membrane and the nucleus Organelles live in the cytoplasm Cell Organelles

Cell Organelles Nucleus control center of the cell Most of the cells genetic information is

stored here Chromatin granular material you can see Chromosome condensed chromatin Nuclear envelope covers the nucleus Nucleolus ribosome production

Cell Organelles Cell Organelles Ribosomes protein synthesis Make proteins

Distributed throughout the cell Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes Cell Organelles Endomembrane System

Different membranes of the cell make different structures

Nuclear envelope Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vessicles/Vacuoles Plasma (cell) membrane Cell Organelles

Endoplasmic Reticulum transports material through the cell and makes lipids Cisternae membrane tubules and sacs Rough E.R. protein

synthesis and hormones Smooth E.R. makes lipids, processes carbohydrates, and gets rid of waste, Ca ion storage Cell Organelles Cell Organelles

Golgi Apparatus Packaging center of the cell Receiving Sorting Packaging Manufacturing

Cell Organelles Cell Organelles Lysosomes use enzymes to digest foreign material Work best in acidic environment

Digest macromolecules Cell Organelles Cell Organelles Vacoules Saclike structure

that is used to store materials Plant cells have a big vacuole that just holds water Cell Organelles

Cell Organelles Energy Organelles Mitochondrion converts food to energy

ATP adenosine triphosphate Comes from ovum

Chloroplast helps make sugar from the sun Organelle DNA

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria have their own DNA Cell Organelles Cell Organelles Peroxisomes

Metabolic compartments Enzymes remove H ions transfer to oxygen to make water Makes H2O2 Cell Organelles

Cytoskeleton give the cell structure and movement within Microtubules Microfilaments Intermediate filaments 3-2 Cell Organelles Cell Organelles

Cell Locomotion Parts Microvilli (present in some cells) small hair like projections Cilia hairlike structures Flagella tail Centrosomes/Centrioles

Cell Organelles Cell Organelles Cell Wall Rigid layer of protection outside of the cell

membrane Present in plants, algae, fungi, and prokaryotes Cell Organelles Extracellular Matrix

Composed of: Glycoproteins Collagen Other carbohydrate containing molecules Fibronectin Integrins

Cell Junctions 3 types Tight junctions Desmosomes Gap

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