Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function POP QUIZ 10/9/12 What characteristics define a prokaryote? What is the endosymbiotic theory? What is the function of the Endoplasmic

reticulum? (both) History of the cell In 1665, Robert Hooke was the first to view cells from cork (dead plant material). He called them cells because they looked like tiny rooms. Anton van

Leeuwenhoek saw tiny living organisms in water in 1675. In 1838, Matthias Schleiden determined that plants are made up of cells. In 1839, Theodor Schwann determined that animals are made up of cells.

In 1855, Rudolf Virchow concluded that new cells are produced from the division of existing cells. Lynn Margulis proposed that mitochondria and chloroplasts were descended from ancient symbiotic prokaryotes. This is called the Endosymbiotic Theory The Cell Theory

All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. New cells are produced from existing cells. Types of Cells Two kinds of cells depending on whether they have a nucleus Eukaryot

e Prokaryo te Genetic material Prokaryotes Genetic material is not in a nucleus

Less complicated and smaller than eukaryotic cell Example: Bacteria **An organism made of a prokaryotic cell is called a prokaryote. Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryotes Genetic material is contained in a nucleus and separated from the rest of the cell More complex and larger than prokaryotic cells Example: Plants, animals, fungi, protists **An organism made of

eukaryotic cell(s) is called a eukaryote. Eukaryotic cell structure Two major parts: Nucleus Cytoplasm-portion of the cell outside the nucleus Eukaryotic cells

Nucleus-The control center Structure: Surrounded by a double membrane called a nuclear envelope. It is dotted with many nuclear pores to allow materials (RNA, proteins, etc) in and out of the nucleus. Small dense region

called a nucleolus where ribosomes are made. Nucleus-The control center Function: Contains almost all of the cells DNA for coding proteins and other molecules. DNA is found on chromosomes which contain genetic information.

Ribosomes Function: Site of protein synthesis. Structure: Small pieces of RNA and protein found throughout the cell. Two subunits.

Endoplasmic Reticulum Function: Site where lipid parts of cell membrane are made, along with proteins and other materials to export from the cell. In addition, the smooth ER detoxifies drugs and toxins in the cell

Structure: Membranous system Rough ER- has ribosomes on surface to assemble proteins Smooth ER-NO ribosomes on surface Golgi Apparatus Function: Modify, sort, and

package proteins and other materials from the ER for storage in the cell or release from the cell. It puts the finishing touches on proteins. Structure: Stack of closely packed membranes

Lysosomes-The Clean Up Crew Function: Breakdown of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins into small molecules to be used by the rest of the cell Breakdown used up organelles Get rid of all stuff in

the cell Structure: Small sac, filled with digestive enzymes Vacuoles - Storage Function: Stores water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates

Structure: Sac-like Plant cells have one large central vacuole Animal cells have many small vacuoles Mitochondria - Energy Function: Convert chemical energy

in food into materials easier for the cell to use. This is called cell respiration. Structure: Enclosed by two membranes with the inner folded membrane, called cristae. Contains its own DNA

(unlike other organelles) Chloroplasts Energy in Plants Function: Captures energy from the sun (solar energy) and changes it into food (chemical energy) for plants (photosynthesis) Structure:

Surrounded by two membranes Stacks of membranes inside called thylakoids. Contains own genetic information like mitochondria Contains green pigment called chlorophyll Not found in animal cells!

Cytoskeleton- structure and support Function: Helps maintain cell shape Helps with movement of the cell (i.e. flagella and cilia) Structure: Two types: microfilaments and

microtubules- made of proteins Flagellum- long, whip-like structure made of microtubules; swim through fluid Cilia- small hair-like structures made of microtubules; beat rhythmically to move fluid outside the cell. This propels the cell. Centrioles- pair of cylindrical

arrangement of microtubules found perpendicularly to each other; help in ANIMAL CELL division Region around centrioles called centrosome Cell Membrane Function: Regulates what enters and leaves the cell Provides protection and support

Structure: Double membrane called a lipid bilayer Flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings Phospholipids with integral proteins and cholesterol

Cell Wall Function: Provides support and protection for the cell Structure: Lies outside the cell membrane Made of structural carbohydrates

Found in plants, algae, fungi and many bacteria NOT FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS!

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